AN EXAMINATION OF EFFECT OF BANDITRY ON RURAL-URBAN MIGRATION IN NIGERIA
1.0 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Migration is regarded as the movement of person(s) from one ecological region to another region, which might be on temporary or permanent origin [Adewale 2005]. A group of persons migrate based on the existing conditions and the motives for it differs from one person to another depending on the circumstances that brought about the decision to migrate. Migration is a selective process affecting individuals or families/households with certain economic, social, educational and demographic characteristics. The movement of people from rural to urban areas is a common episode in Northwest Nigeria masterminded by the insecurity issues prevalent in this areas.
The movement sometimes poses some calamities in the rural as well as in the urban areas even though; there are benefits derivable from it. In most rural areas, the impact of rural-urban migration was a rapid deterioration of the rural economy leading to chronic poverty and food insecurity [Mini S.E 2003].These arise mainly due to excessive drain of youth from the rural population hence leaving only the older, women and aged members to constitute the labour force of the rural area. Migration to urban areas is placing increasing pressure on local government's ability to respond to social service needs of urban populations.
Banditry means occurrence or prevalence of armed robbery or violent crimes. It involves the use of force, or threat to that effect, to intimidate a person with the intent to rob, rape or kill. Banditry is a crime against persons. It has been a common genre of crime, as well as cause violence in contemporary societies (Nigeria Watch, 2011). The prevalence of banditry in Nigeria appears to have been high and rising over the years.Nigeria’s Northwest is gradually becoming another major regional theatre of violence, much like the Northeast where Boko Haram terrorists have wreaked havoc in the past ten years. A problem, which initially appeared as localized disputes between herders and farmers over access to land, has morphed into an intractable crisis posing a major threat to national and regional security. The level of rural banditry keeps escalating from 2014 till date attracting a lot of attention, while assuming increased political undertones are master minders to this yet its of great implication to the survival of common man and at large hence the reason why most rural settlers leave their home and migrate to urban areas in the bid secure their their lives. Banditry refers to armed violence driven principally by the criminal intent to steal and plunder. It is motivated by the quest for economic accumulation. The victims are individuals and communities with material valuables or most cases average people displaced from their home and are forced to migrate.
Banditry in the northwestern states of Kaduna, Zamfara and Katsina has reached alarming heights in recent years. Bandits terrorize villages with impunity. They have actually settled in the states like Ogun in form of herdsmen, Kaduna and Kastina State respectively, setting up fortified enclaves in the hinterland and on the frontiers, from where they plot and carry out their operations on rural community settlers.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Crime thrives in contexts where there’s little deterrence. In most of Nigeria’s rural communities, there are many opportunities for criminal activity. For one thing, some of these communities are located in remote areas where there is little or no government presence. More importantly, households and schools are in some cases separated by and interspersed with forest areas. This renders them vulnerable to banditry. This situation is made worse by the absence of effective community policing mechanisms capable of addressing the hinterlands’ peculiar security challenges. The on going banditry activities prevalent in northwest region of Nigeria has pushed rural dwellers out of their homes into searching for succor in the urban area. The implication of this could be tremendous both to rural community and urban.In addition to displacement, the violence has hampered agricultural activities and heightened the risk of acute food insecurity. Livelihoods have been disrupted, fear and insecurity among the population have increased, and IDPs and host communities are competing for scarce resources such as water, land and food. Protection concerns are heightened for women, children and the elderly, while security, food and other necessities for survival are priority needs in affected areas.However it is against this backdrop that this study is seek to examine the effect of banditry on rural-urban migration.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of banditry on rural-urban migration. Specifically it is geared:
To examine the conditions that can lead to rural-urban migration
To investigate the effect of banditry on rural communities
To determine the rate of rural-urban migration caused by banditry
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will heighten the awareness of government on the need to come up with credible and implementable policies to curb the incessant attacks on common man and improve their livelihood. It would further enable policy makers on the need to make policies that would cover rural-urban migration and ensure that security of lives is made priority. It will enlighten community settlers on the need to be security conscious and prepare themselves with other self-defence mechanism in the absence of quick response from government enforcement agencies.finally the study will also contribute to the general body of knowledge.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of banditry on rural-urban migration. Specifically it will examine the conditions that can lead to rural-urban migration. It will also investigate the effect of banditry on rural communities. More.so it will determine the rate of rural-urban migration caused by banditry activities. The study is delimited to Kaduna State.
1.6. RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: There is no significant effect between rural-urban migration and banditry
H0: The rate of rural-urban migration caused by banditry is low
1.7LIMITATION OF STUDY
In the course of this study the researcher encountered few challenges which majorly includes: Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview). Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 Operational Definitions
Implication: this the effect an action has on something or the conclusion that can be drawn from something although it is not explicitly stated.
Banditry: Banditry is a type of organized crime committed by outlaws typically involving the threat or use of violence. A person who engages in banditry is known as a bandit and primarily commits crimes such as extortion, robbery, and murder, either as an individual or in groups.
Rural: a Rural area or Countryside is a geographic area that is located outside towns and cities.this include village and aggro-communities
Urban: Urban refers to a developed geographical area such as town or cities.
Migration: migration involves the movement of people from one place to another with intentions of settling, permanently or temporarily, at a new location.