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AN EXAMINATION OF ADEQUATE FUNDING AND ITS IMPORTANCE ON THE ADMINISTRATION OF SECONDARY EDUCATION IN NIGERIA

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AN EXAMINATION OF ADEQUATE FUNDING AND ITS IMPORTANCE ON THE ADMINISTRATION OF SECONDARY EDUCATION IN NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the study

Education is the bedrock of any country's real social, political, and economic growth and development. There have been several changes and improvements in the school system since the national policy on education was implemented in 1981. Unfortunately, despite these changes and ongoing massive investments by multiple administrations, Nigerian education has failed to bring the country out of a quagmire of technological underdevelopment, political instability, and social decadence. Most of these changes and innovations, according to Adedapo Olayiwola, Saheed, and Abdulraman (2017), are inadequately implemented due to insufficient finance. The providing of financial resources to address a demand, initiative, or program, according to the Online Business Dictionary (2013). Money for a school project or program can be raised from both within and outside the school. When money are raised, they are normally allocated according to the school's needs. Funding is the process of making monies obtained available to the units that require them, whether in the short or long term.

In most nations across the world, the government is a significant supporter of education. According to Hall (2013), one of the government's key tasks is to subsidize public schools. This is accomplished by preparing a yearly budget to suit the demands of many economic sectors, including education. As a result, through annual financial allocations, the government plays a substantial role in subsidizing education. As a result, the educational sector's level of performance in Nigeria has been tightly related to the availability of resources. Funding has been regarded as an essential instrument for the successful management of the educational sector among the resources required. This is due to the fact that money is essential for the management and administration of most areas of the economy, including education. On the basis of this, UNESCO suggested allocating 26% of a country's yearly budget on educational administration and management (Odia & Omofonmwan, 2007). This is because a financing approach like this will help provide the fundamental resources needed for teaching and learning in terms of both quality and quantity.

Over time, governments in numerous nations have made efforts to raise the level of funds available for the administration of secondary education, and Nigeria is no exception. According to Abdulkareem (2003), decades after the establishment of many education programs such as UPE and UBE, Nigeria's educational sector at all levels is still plagued by low performance. One of the main reasons for this is a lack of financing, clear institutions, and methods for dealing with the problem.

From the mid-1970s to the early 2000s, insufficient funding of Nigeria's education resulted in widespread examples of unpaid teacher wages, non-existent, outdated, or woefully inadequate school facilities and equipment, according to Hall (2013). This makes effective management of the educational system a Herculean task, and when the situation becomes intolerable, either the teachers or the students, or both, revolt, resulting in demonstrations, strike actions, frequent and often prolonged closures of institutions, and a decline in educational quality. As a result, optional secondary education financing is required for effective national development in Nigeria.

1.2  Statement of the problem

            The proportion of funding available to a considerable degree impacts the quantity and quality of educational objectives that will be attained in a nation. This is because money is vital in the acquisition of fundamental human, financial and material resources needed to translate the aims of the school into reality. (Atolabge, 2011) asserts that It also indicates that the shortage of funding might limit if not fully imperil the aims of the secondary level of education from being realized. Such funds must also be correctly utilized for the attainment and sustenance of the long term objectives of secondary education. 

Notably, the challenges of Nigeria's education sector in general and its funding in particular could be traced to policy and strategy instability and inconsistency, inefficient management, wastages and leakages caused by overriding macroeconomic conditions that have determined the fate of the sector. On the part of the government, the responsibility of financing education has been met with strenuous challenges ranging from methods of disbursing funds in our educational system, corrupt practices by stakeholders, lack of manpower, poor management and accountability coupled with the fact that the resources within the limits of society in terms of funds to meet this ever-increasing demand are grossly inadequate and often times not available. Additionally, Odia, et’al (2007) argued that the growth in schools’ enrolment has put pressure on school facilities. Classes are insufficient, the teacher-student ratio has been uncomfortably high, especially in most metropolitan schools, where the current facilities are in extremely terrible state and virtually inhabitable for pupils these hence needed for proper funding of secondary education. Funding is connected to the provision of excellent education delivery and the grade of education given for the population to a significant part depends on the availability of finances. This suggests that funding is the engine room of the education sector and its availability or unavailability will decide the outcomes of the education sector at this level. Thus is it upon this premise that this study seeks to examine adequate funding and its importance on the administration of secondary education in Nigeria.

1.3       Objective of the study

The broad objective of this study is to examine adequate funding and its importance on the administration of secondary education in Nigeria. Specifically, the study

1.  To examine  the challenges of  inadequate financing of secondary education

2. To determine the causes of unsustainable funding for education in Kwara state.

3. To ascertain the importance of adequate funding on administration of secondary education.

1.4       Research Questions

1.        What  are the challenges of  inadequate financing of secondary education.

2.        What are  the causes of unsustainable funding for secondary education.

3.        What are the importance of adequate funding on administration of secondary education.

1.5       Significance of the study

Findings from this study will be helpful to government, stakeholders and other research. To government , the study will enable them to understand ways they can handle education funding challenges and enlighten them on the need to recognize basic education (that is primary and secondary education) as public good and  accepts the responsibility of providing education free for all citizen. Moreso the study will add to the body of existing literature and serve as reference material for student and other academia in related field of study.

1.6       Scope of the study

The scope of this study is to examine adequate funding and its importance on the administration of secondary education in Nigeria. It will examine  the challenges of  inadequate financing of secondary education. It will determine the causes of unsustainable funding for secondary education. It will ascertain the importance of adequate funding on administration of secondary education. The study is however delimited to selected local government in Plateau State.

1.7       Limitation of the study

Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. The significant constraint was the scanty literature on the subject owing to the nature of the discourse thus the researcher incurred more financial expenses and much time was required in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. Additionally, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. More so, the choice of the sample size was limited  as few respondent were selected to answer the research instrument hence cannot be generalize to other secondary schools. However, despite the constraint  encountered during the  research, all factors were downplayed in other to give the best and make the research successful.

1.8       Definition of terms

Education: Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, morals, beliefs, and habits. 

Financing Education: Financing education means funding education, it involves sourcing and providing funds to run school programmes and ensuring the optimal distribution and utilization of the funds to achieve educational goals.

Secondary Education: Secondary school refers to the schooling offered after a primary school, and before higher, optional education. 


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