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AN ANALYSIS ON THE NEXUS BETWEEN FAMILY INFLUENCE AND SPORT BETTING

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AN ANALYSIS ON THE NEXUS BETWEEN FAMILY INFLUENCE AND SPORT BETTING

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Gambling is a behavioural activity that possesses inherent hazards and potential advantages, which can impact the physical and mental well-being of individuals, as well as influence criminal behaviour within families and communities. According to the definition provided by Appiah and Awuah (2016), gambling can be characterised as the act of wagering something of value with the expectation of obtaining a prize, whereas the final result is contingent upon the outcome of events that remain undisclosed to the participants at the moment of placing the bet. The term "gambling" might also be characterised as the deliberate undertaking of jeopardising a relatively insignificant asset, often monetary in nature, in a transaction that hinges upon chance and unpredictability, with the aim of obtaining a more substantial asset, typically monetary in nature, at a later point in time. The phenomenon of gambling can be categorised into four primary categories. The first category encompasses activities that involve the exchange of money or valuable items, such as engaging in casino games or playing poker machines. The second category involves placing bets on future events, such as wagering on football matches, races, or video game outcomes. The third category pertains to participation in lotteries, such as the National lottery or Raffle draw. Lastly, the fourth category encompasses engaging in speculative activities related to investments, insurance, and stock market transactions (Appiah and Awuah, 2016).

Sports betting is a widely embraced form of gambling wherein individuals engage in the act of making predictions regarding the outcomes of athletic events and subsequently place wagers on these outcomes, with the ultimate aspiration of securing a predetermined prize. There exists a positive correlation between the number of matches an individual predicts and the expected outcome, assuming the prediction is accurate upon conclusion of the match. The proliferation of internet and social media platforms has resulted in the increased prevalence and societal acceptance of sports betting and several other types of gambling among the younger demographic. According to Abbott (2017), a significant number of adolescents currently perceive gambling, smoking, and drinking as customary practises that symbolise the transition into adulthood. There are reports of young male sports fans adopting sports betting as a form of social and group cohesion (e.g. Deans et al. 2016).

Research findings indicate that around 60 million individuals in Nigeria engage in sports betting, resulting in a daily expenditure of approximately N1.8 billion. On average, these individuals place bets amounting to #3000 each day. According to Ahaibwe et al. (2016), it has been observed that certain young individuals residing in various African urban areas view gambling as a socially acceptable pursuit and a viable means of earning a living, hence choosing to dedicate significant amounts of their time and effort towards it. According to the findings of Oyeleke et al. (2017), a significant proportion of sports bettors in Ibadan, Nigeria, specifically 78%, had engaged in gambling activities for a minimum duration of six months. Furthermore, the average duration of time spent at the bet parlours during each gaming session was reported to exceed two hours. Moreover, according to the NOIPoll conducted in 2017, a majority of gamblers in Nigeria, specifically 53%, engage in daily betting activities.

The influence of family members on one another's development, functioning, and well-being is significant. Families assume a significant part in the progression of gambling behaviour, while simultaneously experiencing harmful consequences as a result of the disordered gambling exhibited by any individual within the family unit. There is an increasing body of research indicating that genetics have a substantial influence on the likelihood of developing problem gambling (Grant, Leppink, Redden, Odlaug, & Chamberlain, 2015; Lang et al., 2016). However, it is also recognised that psycho-social factors play an equally important role in the initiation of gambling. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to address this need for further investigation.

    1. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Sports betting has emerged as a prominent aspect of daily life in Nigeria, with its increasing prevalence leading to the proliferation of betting shops around the country. According to a survey by NOIpolls in 2017, the prevalence rate in the south-west zone, which includes the area of our study, was found to be 77%. This rate surpasses the national average, scoring at 92%. The accessibility to knowledge, practise, and platforms for sports betting has been significantly expanded in the country, as well as in other nations, due to the improvements in information and communication technology (ICT). The presence of this phenomenon inside the nation has prompted numerous ethical inquiries among young individuals, parents, and other caretakers, since it introduces a sense of confusion and disharmony into the established societal standards and principles of diligence. The Nigerian society highly values hard effort as a traditional virtue. However, Njemanze and Nnorom (2019) argue that the contemporary culture of materialism displayed by gamblers can be seen as remnants of the negative impacts of colonialism, industrialization, and globalisation. The phenomenon described has fostered a societal acceptance of a culture characterised by convenience and self-centeredness. It has been posited that the prevalence of gambling practises is directly correlated with cultural norms, lifestyle choices, and the degree of social acceptance.

Sports betting is often viewed as unethical in communities with strong traditional and religious values, such as Ibadan, and is accompanied by social shame (Masaba et al., 2016). The existing body of literature has extensively examined the perception and consequences of sports betting on society, consistently finding that the overall impact is more negative than positive. While there may be some limited beneficial impacts in the short-term, the long-term experience is predominantly negative, and it is important to note that there is no degree of engagement in sports betting that can be considered safe. In an alternative formulation, Oyeleke et al. (2017) proposed that the prevailing public opinion of sports betting is primarily influenced by the idea that individuals are negatively impacted by excessive gambling, rather than by a moral objection to the practise of sports betting.

According to the research conducted by Appiah and Awuah (2016), there exists a correlation between parental gambling and both the frequency of gambling in the last year and the probability of being categorised as a problem gambler among adolescent individuals who engage in gambling activities. According to Abbott's (2017) research, older persons in Hong Kong frequently developed a propensity for gambling throughout their youth, sometimes due to the influence of extended family members. The act of gambling was socially accepted within their familial context and did not carry any negative stigma. Moreover, the cultivation of gambling abilities was actively encouraged during their formative years. According to existing research, individuals who engage in gambling activities tend to seek support from their families when facing difficulties. However, they may encounter obstacles that prevent them from doing so, such as concerns about damaging their self-worth and the fear of not living up to their family members' expectations. These factors can potentially hinder their willingness to seek assistance from their families, so restricting their access to help. It is against this backdrop that this study intends to analyse the nexus between family influence and sport betting.

    1. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The broad objective of this study is to analyse the nexus between family influence and sport betting. Specifically, this study aims:

  1. To determine the extent of sport betting in families.

  2. To find out whether family socio-economic status has an effect on sport betting.

  3. To find out whether family religious status has an effect on sport betting.

  4. To find out whether family level of education has an effect on sport betting.

    1. RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The following research questions will be answered in this study:

  1. What is the extent of sport betting in families?

  2. Does family socio-economic status have an effect on sport betting?

  3. Does family religious status have an effect on sport betting?

  4. Does family level of education have an effect on sport betting?

    1. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study will serve as one of the studies focusing on sports betting and the effect familial influence has on gambling. Since the phenomenon of sports betting is so widespread, this study will address some of the salient points concerning this issue and also suggest ways to curb the cancer of sports betting in our society.

This study will also serve as an additional research material for further research and future studies.

    1. SCOPE OF THE STUDY

Broadly, this study focuses on analysing the nexus between family influence and sport betting. Specifically, this study focuses on determining the extent of sport betting in families, finding out whether family socio-economic status has an effect on sport betting, find out whether family religious status has an effect on sport betting and finding out whether family level of education has an effect on sport betting.

Selected residents of Uyo in Akwa Ibom State will serve as the respondents for this study.

    1. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.

Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.

    1. DEFINITION OF TERMS

Sports betting: Sports betting is the activity of predicting sports results and placing a wager on the outcome. Sports bettors place their wagers either legally, through a bookmaker/sportsbook, or illegally through privately run enterprises referred to as "bookies".


This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research



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