A SURVEY ON THE IMPACT OF SPORTS BETTING TECHNIQUES ON YOUTH PATRONAGE OF SPORTS GAMBLING IN NIGERIA
Background of the study
In contemporary Nigeria, sports betting has emerged as a significant commercial enterprise (Okon, 2015). The betting business is a robust and quickly expanding sector within the global economy. The proliferation of betting shops has made it a significant component of social phenomena, irrespective of a nation's level of development. The phenomenon of sports betting has permeated popular society, finding its place within the realms of entertainment, leisure, sport, and tourist sectors. It has emerged as a substantial income generator for both governmental bodies and commercial enterprises (Wann et al., 2001). The betting business in Nigeria is a legally sanctioned sector that is overseen by the National Lottery Regulatory Commission. It operates under the purview of the National Lottery Act of 2005 and the National Lottery Regulatory Act of 2007, as modified (Lagos State Lottery Board, 2017). Nevertheless, the integration of in-play betting possibilities into mobile phone platforms has facilitated the simultaneous occurrence of online betting and viewing activities, resulting in a heightened level of engagement between these two businesses (Benson et al., 2021). The year 2019 saw a significant transformation in the betting landscape of Rivers State, as the sector experienced a substantial surge in the number of betting organisations and players. This increase was accompanied by a quick expansion of operations and the introduction of diverse modes and facilities (Lagos State Lottery Board, 2017). According to the Lagos State Lottery Board (2017), the number of betting shops in Rivers State alone exceeds 5,000, with a corresponding participation rate of over 10,000 individuals in the year 2021. The expansion of gambling has resulted in the business branching out from traditional forms of betting, such as casino gambling and national lotteries, to more contemporary forms, such as online sports betting (d'Astous & Gaspero, 2013). The betting sector has successfully capitalised on Nigeria's extensive football culture (Mustapha & Enilolobo, 2019). Several prominent football leagues, like the English Premier League (EPL), German Bundesliga, Italian Serie A, French Ligue 1, and Spanish La Liga, have a substantial fan base inside their respective countries. In Nigeria, the act of betting on these leagues offers individuals the chance to generate income from their passion for football (Jackson, 2019). The presence of betting enterprises has been more pervasive in Rivers State, with new establishments emerging on a regular basis, catering to both in-person and online customers. According to Akingbolu and Akinlosotu (2019), the sector has shown a rapid growth rate of 16% annually from 2016 to the present. Additionally, it has attained a valuation above $147 million, indicating promising prospects for its future development. The betting sector has significantly contributed to the economic development of the country, as shown by its claimed support of around eight thousand (8,000) employment, both directly and indirectly, and its generation of money (Chiweshe, 2019). The current state of the market is characterised by intense competition, prompting betting firms to seek improved strategies that enable bettors to maximise their profits via strategic stacking of their bets (NOIpolls, 2019). They employ advanced strategies such as providing players with substantial registration bonuses, ensuring high levels of usability and platform security, and offering extensive collections of diverse online betting games encompassing betting odds, cash out options, bonus features, and handicapping (Griffiths, 2010). The betting sector is anticipated to experience a promising trajectory in the future, owing to its escalating popularity that continues to grow annually. In their 2017 study, Lopez-Gonzalez, Guerrero-Solé, Estévez, and Griffiths examined the consequences of sports betting in Nigeria. Specifically, they investigated the role and influence of technology on sports betting, as well as the impacts of sports betting on vulnerable users. Additionally, the researchers assessed the impact of the substantial expansion of the betting business. Previous research conducted by Olusola et al. (2021) examined the impact of online betting on the enhancement of operational efficiency among young individuals. Several researchers have expressed their support for expanding the investigation of online betting into other domains as a means to promote progress (Akinlosotu et al., 2019; Olaore et al., 2020; Herskowitz, 2016). This research contributes to existing theory by including two predictor variables, namely Betting Odds and Betting Bonus, which have been previously studied and are applicable to the betting sector. These variables are then examined in relation to two aspects of juvenile patronage, namely referral and repeat visit. The lack of empirical data in studying online betting strategies and the involvement of young individuals in sports betting organisations is a rather unexpected finding. Despite the significance of relationship assimilation in online betting strategies, prior academics have overlooked its function and have failed to develop frameworks that acknowledge the moderating impacts of betting regulation. The researcher aims to address the existing gaps in the literature. Given the foregoing, this study seeks to survey on the impact of sports betting techniques on youth patronage of sports gambling in Nigeria..
Statement of the problem
The concerning issues pertaining to the elevated unemployment rate, particularly in Nigeria in recent years, have emerged as a prominent topic of concern for governmental entities at different tiers and other relevant parties. The increasing severity of the challenges faced by unemployed youths in Nigeria has led to a significant rise in criminal activities, as well as a reliance on gambling and involvement in acts of violence, rendering them vulnerable to manipulation by politicians in the country (Olayinka & Taiwo, 2017). A significant number of young individuals and elderly citizens are enticed by the potential of achieving substantial winnings in sports betting, leading them to consistently frequent betting establishments. This trend persists due to the severe scarcity of job chances inside the nation (Ofosu & Kotey, 2020). However, many betting organisations have seen a decline in consumer engagement due to concerns such as account hacking, online fraud, difficulties in cashing out during live matches, website pop-up advertisements that impede site accessibility, and problems with winning payouts. These factors have therefore had an impact on client loyalty and engagement. Several individuals expressed dissatisfaction with the difficulty encountered while attempting to access certain firms' websites, particularly in relation to booking favoured games. The aforementioned situation has resulted in a decline in consumer patronage, as some individuals have provided bad recommendations, ceased revisiting the website, and shown less dedication and devotion towards the organisation (Ofosu & Kotey, 2020). This research aims to investigate the potential of the conceptual framework, including the aspects of online betting methods (betting odds and betting bonus), together with the measurements of youth patronage (referral and repeat visit), in addressing the issue of unemployment among young people. This study sought to propose an empirical survey on the impact of sports betting techniques on youth patronage of sports gambling in Nigeria.
Objective of the study
The broad objective of the study is to survey the impact of sports betting techniques on youth patronage of sports gambling in Nigeria. The specific objectives is as follows
Identify the various betting techniques used by sport betting companies in Nigeria
Determine whether there is a significant relationship between sport betting techniques and youth patronage of sports gambling.
Find out the effects of sport betting techniques on youths’ attractiveness to sport gambling in Nigeria.
Determine the extent sport betting techniques influence youth patronage of sports gambling in Nigeria.
The following questions have been prepared for the study
What are the various betting techniques used by sport betting companies in Nigeria?
Is there a significant relationship between sport betting techniques and youth patronage of sports gambling?
What are the effects of sport betting techniques on youths’ attractiveness to sport gambling in Nigeria?
What is the extent sport betting techniques influence youth patronage of sports gambling in Nigeria?
1.5 Significance of the study
The findings of the study will be significant to government and policy makers as it will reveal the effects and dangers of sport betting so that they can plan for adequate job creation for youth and also come up with effective strategies to address the problem.
The findings of the study will be significant to the academic community as it will contribute to the existing literature.
1.6 Scope of the study
The study focuses on the impact of sports betting techniques on youth patronage of sports gambling in Nigeria. Hence, the study will identify the various betting techniques used by sport betting companies in Nigeria, determine whether there is a significant relationship between sport betting techniques and youth patronage of sports gambling, find out the effects of sport betting techniques on youths’ attractiveness to sport gambling in Nigeria and determine the extent sport betting techniques influence youth patronage of sports gambling in Nigeria. Hence, the study is delimited to Asaba, Delta State
1.7 Limitation of the study
Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, and interview), which is why the researcher resorted to a moderate choice of sample size. More so, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.