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AN EXAMINATION ON THE IMPACT OF YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT AND INSECURITY ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT (A CASE STUDY OF CENTRAL AGRICULTURAL ZONE OF BORNO STATE)

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AN EXAMINATION ON THE IMPACT OF YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT AND INSECURITY ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT (A CASE STUDY OF CENTRAL AGRICULTURAL ZONE OF BORNO STATE)

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

Insecurity and unemployment continue to be among the most pressing issues our country is currently grappling with, with insecurity taking precedence. Nigeria, the most populous country in Africa and the second largest economy on the continent with a population of over 150 million, is indeed endowed with diverse and abundant human, material, and capital resources. Regrettably, though, years of unbridled corruption, mismanagement, and sheer waste have impeded economic growth in the country. Consequently, the nation's resources have been left underutilised, which has resulted in unemployment and abject poverty. These twin evils are believed by experts to potentially hinder the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (Adebayo, 2021). 

Ake (2021) posited that the emergence and persistence of extensive youth unemployment, as well as the declining well-being of the majority of Nigerians, despite the significant endowment of human and natural resources, give rise to three fundamental questions that this research work aims to address. 

Unemployment is a situation that arises when individuals are not engaged in any form of employment and are actively in search of employment opportunities. The unemployment rate is a metric used to gauge the extent of unemployment within a population. It is determined by dividing the number of individuals who are unemployed by the total number of individuals currently participating in the labour force, and expressing the result as a percentage. Unemployment is the state in which an individual who is actively seeking employment is unable to secure a job. Unemployment is frequently utilised as an indicator of the overall well-being of the economy. The most frequently cited measure of unemployment is the unemployment rate. The ratio of unemployed individuals to the total number of individuals in the labour force is referred to as the unemployment rate (Adebayo, 2021). 

According to recent statistics from the World Bank, the youth unemployment rate stands at 38 percent. However, in reality, a staggering 80 percent of Nigerian youths are unemployed. It is worth noting that a significant portion of this unemployed population consists of secondary school-leavers residing in rural areas. In fact, they account for approximately half of the overall figure. On the other hand, university and polytechnic graduates make up the remaining portion of this alarming statistic. What appears to be more concerning is the fact that the nation's universities and polytechnics persistently produce over 150,000 graduates each year, while the number of available jobs remains insufficient to meet the growing demand from job seekers (Summers, 2018). 

Recently, a Federal Government agency posted a recruitment advertisement. On the day of the event, there was an overwhelming number of applicants, which the agency officials were unable to manage. Unfortunately, this led to the unfortunate deaths of some applicants, possibly due to exhaustion and hypoglycemia resulting from not having eaten before arriving at the recruitment venue. Similarly, another agency of the Federal Government recently chose to implement online registration for recruitment, likely in an effort to mitigate the potential chaos mentioned earlier and possibly to limit the number of applicants. However, despite these measures, they were inundated with a staggering 120,000 applications for a mere 25 available positions. According to Simonazzi and Vianello (2021). 

The problem of unemployment is of such severity that the Minister of Finance and the Coordinating Minister of the Economy, Dr. Ngozi Okonjo Iweala, recently acknowledged that it is causing her sleepless nights. The Federal Government has expressed concern that Nigeria may not be able to achieve the Millennium Development Goals by 2015, citing the obstacles presented by unemployment. This view was similarly corroborated by Dr. Precious Gbeneol, the Senior Special Assistant to the President on the Millennium Development Goals, during the recent World Science Day for Peace and Development event held in Abuja. 

Summers, (2018) posited that the security situation in the country, resulting from persistent attacks by insurgents in the North and kidnappings in the South-East, constitutes one of the various factors contributing to unemployment. This is because potential investors are unlikely to invest their money in an environment where they would fear for their personal safety and freedom of movement. 

It is crucial to consider that if the ongoing increase in unemployment persists, a significant number of these graduates may potentially be compelled to join the ranks of oil theft syndicates, armed robbers, kidnappers, militants, and insurgents. Similarly, it is unfortunate to acknowledge that some of their female counterparts may find themselves involved in the profession of prostitution. Thus, in order to mitigate the issue of unemployment in the nation, it is imperative for the relevant individuals, the private sector, and all levels of government to implement innovative strategies to address this challenge (Alika, 2023). 

Poorly skilled individuals are abundant in all sectors of the nation's economy, and it has been recognised that acquiring vocational skills is crucial for shaping employable individuals. Unemployed individuals require additional skills beyond what they currently possess in order to secure new jobs. Graduates of various institutions should be encouraged to acquire vocational skills that can prepare them for self-employment and financial independence. It is important to note that while paid employment provides a means to earn a living, self-employment offers the potential for unlimited earnings. 

1.2 Statement of the Problem 

The state of insecurity in Nigeria is indeed a cause for concern, given the alarming frequency at which innocent individuals succumb to the weapons wielded by criminals within the nation. The Federal government is allocating a significant portion of its budget towards military expenditures. The Nigerian Police Force has consistently been provided with vehicles and communication gadgets in order to address the issue of insecurity in the country. However, regrettably, the situation still persists without a viable solution. The security strategies employed by the combined force of the military are not producing significant outcomes. Nigeria, as a nation, is frequently characterised as a wealthy country with a majority of its citizens living in poverty, where 50% of the population resides below the poverty line. Unemployment has been a significant concern in Nigeria, particularly since 1980. During this time, the nation's economy experienced a downturn due to the decline in world petroleum prices, devaluation of the Nigerian currency, widespread corruption, and a rapid increase in the population of Nigeria. The resultant poverty has raised inquiries regarding the prudence of traditional approaches to national development. 

Many decades ago, Nigeria was perceived as one of the richest countries in Africa due to its abundant petroleum reserves and large population. Ironically, the most dominant feature of the Nigerian economy is unemployment and poverty (Adebayo, 2021). There is a need for a development plan that will revitalise the economy of Nigeria, and thereby provide relevant strategies for combating unemployment and poverty in Nigeria. 

1.3 Objectives to the Study

The general aim of the study is to examine the impact of youth unemployment and insecurity on economic development (a case study of Central Agricultural Zone Of Borno State). The specific objective of the study is to; 

Find out the cause of insecurity  in central agricultural zone of Borno State.

Find out the causes of and youth unemployment in central agricultural zone of Borno State.

Ascertain the effect of insecurity on the economic development of central agricultural zone of Borno State

Ascertain the effect of youth unemployment on the economic development of central agricultural zone of Borno State.

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions have been prepared for the study

What are the cause of insecurity in central agricultural zone of Borno State?

What are the causes of youth unemployment in central agricultural zone of Borno State?

What are the effect of insecurity on the economic development of central agricultural zone of Borno State?

What are the effect of youth unemployment on the economic development of central agricultural zone of Borno State?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

Ho: Insecurity and youth unemployment has no negative effect on economic development of central agricultural zone of Borno State.

Ha: Insecurity and youth unemployment has a negative effect on economic development of central agricultural zone of Borno State.  

1.6 Significance Of Study

This research work is significant to the extent that it provides exposition to past studies and findings in this subject area. Also, this study will compliment the previous study and add to the body of knowledge in this study area. Such that both past and currents studies will provide basis for corporate decision making.                

Finally, the study will be significant to future researchers who will want to undergo study on any area related to insecurity and youth unemployment in Nigeria and its implication for development.

1.7 Scope Of The Study

The scope of this study boarders on the impact of youth unemployment and insecurity on economic development (a case study of Central Agricultural Zone Of Borno State). Hence, the study will be carried out in central agricultural zone of Borno State.

1.8    Limitation Of The Study

This research project, like all human endeavors, had some challenges that threatened to derail the study's completion. One of the reasons is that the time allotted for this work was so limited that the researcher did not have enough time to complete the task thoroughly. During data collection, the researcher also had to put forth extra effort to understand the respondents' interview schedules, several of whom fell into the incomprehensible age group. Also, there were financial and transportation constraints to deal with. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, interview).

1.9 Definition Of Terms

Youth unemployment: Youth unemployment is the lack of job opportunities for people typically in the age group of 15-24

Unemployment: Unemployment occurs when a person who is actively searching for employment is unable to find work. Unemployment is often used as a measure of the health of the economy. 

Insecurity: The state of being open to danger or threat; lack of protection and feeling of uncertainty, a lack of confidence or anxiety about yourself

Development: Development is a concept that embraces not only the provision of basis needs and the expansion of economic activity, but also health, individual freedoms, education and human longevity.


This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research



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