Geo-information system is an acronym for Geographic Information system. It is a system which contains geographic information about a particular geographic location. It is a socio-technical system for sensing, modeling, representing, visualizing, monitoring, processing and communicating geo-information in support of planning and designing. It is also the technical and scientific discipline guiding the design of a geo-informatics system. It is also a system that provides information about a particular geographical location at a particular period and it is created by manipulating data about a place in a computerize system.
The geoinformatic system includes computers and network, data use and data exchange between users within a different range of locations.
Geographic information involves map drawing about a particular location either on paper or some sort of map overlay. The input storage and display of geographical information are realized in a computer. They can be analyzed to generate new information and this is done by a software known as the GIS software.
The map work is done by a cartographer since designing of the geo-informatics system requires maps of the concerned locations.
1.2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
- To maximize the efficiency of decision making and planning.
- To provide efficient means for data distribution and handling.
- Eradication of duplicated data
- Integration of information from many sources
- Analysis of queries involving geographical reference data for generation of new information.
- To update data quickly and at a minimum cost.
- Ensuring current, accurate data by training GIS experts.
- Provision of standardized process for timely data delivery for the GIS environment.
- Increment in control of data maintenance
- To find how GIS can improve learning and teaching of related course in all institution of learning.
1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
- To widen human knowledge about the use of the computer system and how it relates to their everyday activities.
- Organization of complexities of the real world into simple representation.
- Facilitates understanding and relationship that exist between different geographical places.
- Solves problems such as planning details, application and modeling of global atmospheric circulations.
- Facilitates information sharing among organization in different geographical locations.
The methodologies used in carrying out this project include mapping of case study area, the use of questionnaire, and observation of case study environment and interview of person, both students and some teaching staff of the polytechnic.
1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATION
This project concentrates on the operation of the Geo-informatic system. It provides an insight into the structure and mode of creating geoinformatic information to be stored on the computerized system. This serves as a guide to visitors to the organization as it reduces time and stress required to locate where they are going.
Since the project also deals with maps as essential part of the system, the different types of map available were also briefly described.
The use of the GIS reduces time, labour and wasted effort on the use of the manual system.
The following are the shortcomings encountered during the course of project research.
- Lack of quality data needed by the GIS to produce meaningful result.
- Restricted access to data due to their confidentiality.
- Cost of procuring computer and linking them at different centers to form a network is expensive.
- The breakdown of a centre can adversely affect the quality of data and failure at a centre will affect the reliability of entire result.
- Inaccurate and incomplete data
1.6 ORGANIZATION OF THE REPORT
This section gives the summary of each chapter in the project report.
Chapter one concerns itself with the introduction to the project, the aims and objectives that brought about writing of the project as well as the research methodologies involved. It also talks about a brief description of how the geoinformatic system works.
Chapter two summarizes analysis of the existing system. This was carried out to detect the weak points of the existing system and also to ensure a good design of the proposed system.
Chapter three provides a concise description of the system design which includes the output and input files and procedure designs.
Chapter four gives a brief illustration on how the proposed system will be implemented. It also provides the basic software and hardware requirements needed to be used for the proposed system. It also specifies concisely the programming language used in developing the proposed system.
Recommendation and conclusion are the contents of Chapter five.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
- Projection: This is referred to as forecast which is based on present trends. It is usually useful when dealing with images and earths features.
- Map: This is a graphical representation of some part of the earth surface. It contains information about d place.
- Geography: This is the study of the physical features of the earth in relation to how they are useful to being.
- System: This is a set of thing working together as a network to achieve a set goal.
- Information: This is referred to as processed data. In this case it refers to the data about a particular geographic area.
- Geo-information: This simply means geographic information. This could be about a place or a range of places.
- Geoinformatic System: This is a system that contains geographic information about a particular geographical place.
- Raster Data: Array based data that can represent a large range of computable objects.
- Meta data: Usually referred to as a data dictionary. It contains data about data. It provides meanings to some difficult or problem arising where using the data.
- Co-ordinate system: This brings the components of the geoinformation system elements into an efficient working system.
- GIS Operator: A geoinformatic system operator is the personnel in charge of the geoinformatic system and sees to the efficient working of the system.