The discovery of the computer has to a greater extent revolutionized most profession and their work performance. Doctors, accountants, Architects, Bankers, Engineers, Flight Controllers cannot work without the help of the computer. Recent studies have shown that computer can be of great help in the diagnosing of several eye defects like short and long sightedness. Artificial Intelligence elements like Artificial Neural Networks, Fuzzy logic, Expert Systems, Genetic Algorithms, tend to emulate the human brain when it comes to detecting defects in the human body. The techniques used in this paper are Support Vector Machines (SVMs) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) to diagnose eyesight related problems for the people who have problems in their vision. Artificial intelligence in Medicine (AIM) field emerged in the early 1970’s in response to several simultaneous needs, opportunities and interests. An increased demand for high quality medical services coupled with the explosive growth of medical knowledge has led to the usage of computer program that could be used to assist physicians and other eye health care providers in discharging their clinical roles in diagnosis, therapy and prognosis (Javitt, 2003),.
Recently, Support Vector Machines have been used in a range of problems including bioinformatics (Yu, et all 2003) text categorization (Sebled et all 2000), classification and pattern recognition. The support vector machine is a method for dividing a feature space using an optimized hyper plane, whereas Artificial Neural networks have been successfully applied to problems in pattern classification, pattern matching, function approximation, optimization and associative Memories (Luger, G.F., 2004). In Artificial Neural Networks the nonlinearity of transfer function gives the network capability to emulate nonlinear mapping properties. In this research a feedback net mechanism has been used.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Although humans are wise enough to learn about the body, its defects and how to implement solutions to them, our knowledge is greatly limited. Accuracy and speed of humans are always low. There are always mistakes especially when it comes to delicate parts of the body like the eyes.
Myopia and presbyopia which is short and long sightedness respectively has been in existence even before the invention of computers. Early detection and solution to it has also been a burden to humans due to limited knowledge and how slow we are. Some patients who have not shown any symptoms of myopia and presbyopia but have it are told to go home and relax due to we haven’t seen any physical known symptoms, hence worsening the situation.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this study is to design a computerized system for the diagnosis of myopia and presbyopia and to proffer necessary treatment. Specific objectives include:
i. To design and build an intelligent system in medicine to improve the efficiency of the current method of eye defect diagnosis.
ii. To develop an expert tool which incorporates decision support system characteristics to aid eye specialist in early detection of myopia and presbyopia.
iii. A specifically designed database, with the purpose of storing doctor and patient details, availability information of pharmacy and blood bank, diagnostic center services, doctor appointment schedule, diagnostic center services schedule, ER services alongside access levels for the intended specific user types of the system as the main aspects.
1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
In order to achieve the objectives stated above, the scope of the study is limited to the following:
i. The study involves conducting research and analyzing the current system of operation in Obinwanne eye clinic Nkpor and to suggest a computerized method of detecting and solving myopia and presbyopia.
ii. The system involves creating a knowledge base which incorporates all the known symptoms of the eye defect in order to be able to detect and proffer solution as early as possible.
iii. The system is designed using Java which gives it the ability to run on any operating system.
By determining the scope of the study, the subsequent processes in developing the proposed system as the solution to the research problem would be easier and has clearer defined boundary, which in turn act as a guideline in developing the system.
1.5 JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY
Provision of healthcare services, particularly when it comes to eyes is a largely neglected area in Nigeria. Any meaningful improvement made in this field will therefore be beneficial for all medical practitioners involved. Generally, people attempting to receive services will be able to experience the advantages provided by a system that is efficient, effective, easy to use and affordable. In order to minimize suffering of the affected people and introduce efficiency in the system that will provide greater utility, this project work was commenced.
1.6 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The following are some factors, which acted as an impeachment or constraints to the progress of the project work;
a. Lack of Documented materials: It was difficult to start the project initially because reference materials at my disposal are limited.
b. Financial constraint is another factors that limited the researcher in owning out this project effectively.
c. Reluctance by the respondents in giving information fearing that the information sought would be used to intimidate them or print a negative image about them.
To counter this, I carried a pilot study to establish the possible cause of non-compliance in filling the questionnaires and adjusted the questionnaire accordingly.
Also I encouraged the respondents to participate without holding back the information they might be having as the research instruments would not bear their names.
1.7 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
THIS paper is structured as follows:
® Chapter one gives the general overview of myopia and presbyopia and how effective computers can be in their early diagnosis.
® Chapter two presents the review of related work carried out.
® Chapter Three provides the methodology used in the research work, analysis of the present system and solutions giving by the proposed system.
® Chapter four gives the system specification and designs of the proposed system
® Chapter five gives the conclusion and recommendation of the whole work
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
I. Myopia: A condition in which close objects appear clearly but far ones appear blurry
II. Presbyopia: A gradual age related loss of the eyes ability to focus activity on nearly objects.
III. Diagnosis: The identification of an illness through cross examination