The construction of the callophane sealing machine was carried out. The project started with an encompassing review of the various methods of heat sealing film packages. The machine can be used in sealing both low, medium and high-density cellophane. The product has a heating element, which converts electrical energy to heat energy, which converts electrical energy to heat energy, which is utilized in the sealing of the cellophane. It has an efficiency of about 90% with a reasonable degree of accuracy.
The major components of the machine included 24 – 30 volts transformer, heating element, electrical cables, plywood, tape (paper, Teflon, black) lever machine, seconds time, micro – switch and on/off indication bulb.
The machine was relatively cheap and compares favourably with imported types of the same capacity. The total cost of production amounted to the sum of ten thousand, one hundred naira only (N10,100.00).
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 APPLCIATION OF POLYETHENE (CELLOPHANE)
1.2 TYPES OF SEALING MACHINES
1.3 OTHER USES OF CELLOPHANE
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF CELLOPHANES
2.2 PRODUCTION OF CELLOPHANE MATERIALS
2.3 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF POLYOLEFINS
2.4 SEALING OF ILMS
2.5 THE STRUCTURAL FORMULAR OF LOPE
3.0 MATERIAL SELECTION
3.1 GENERAL PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS
3.2 METALS AND ITS PROPERTIES
3.3 FERROUS METALS
3.4 PROPERTIES OF STEEL
3.5 NON FERROUS METALS
3.6 GLASS AND ITS PROPERTIES
3.7 WOOD AND ITS PROPERTIES
3.8 TYPES OF WOOD
3.9 MATERIAL OF CONSTRUCTION FOR PROJECT
3.10 ANALYSIS OF OTHER MATERIALS USED IN CONSTRUCTION
4.0 ENGINEERING METHOD
4.1 ENGINEERING DRAWING
4.2 COLLECTION OF MATERIALS
4.3 DIMENSIONING AND MARKING OUT
4.4 CUTTING AND WELDING
4.5 FILING OF EDGES
4.6 BUILDING OF THE BOX
4.7 PLACING OF FURMICA
4.8 TRANSFORMER CONSTRUCTION
4.9 ELECTRICAL CONNECTION
Cellophane sealing machine is basically used for cellophane and nylon materials sealing. It is a machine that uses the principle of light, heating materials or element to seal two impressed surfaces or even more impressed surface depending on the nylon usage and application.
The packaging phenomenon was previously done by the use of paper bags but as time went on, this method changed to cellophane packaging system and till date, it has been growing. This cellophane can be obtained by the process of polymerization of organic compounds to form polyethene.
With the invention or introduction of technology, different types of packaging systems have been deviced, of which the most highly used is the cellophane packaging and sealing. Although, the use of time in packaging is still in use. Cellophane packaging excels since it can be easily obtained, fabricated, as well as store materials of different shapes and sizes.
The properties of poly ethane that made it to be highly useful in all aspects of packaging are inertness, high resistance of acid attack, water, base, organic chemicals, low coefficient etc polyehtene is used in packaging goods like ice cream, treated water, beverages, and biscuits, pharmerceutical products and some other fungicides like cocoabre sandus, copper sulphate (blue stone), ridomil plus etc.
1.1 APPLICATION OF POLYETHENES (CELLOPHANE)
Cellophane is used for different forms of packaging which include:
1. Produces wrapping: Low density polyethene is widely used in the packaging of fresh horticultural produce. The touch and well sealed films are required for the packaging of these items.
2. Frozon food packaging: The toughness of low density polyethene at low temperature coupled with the fact that it can be formed into bags on a film. Seal basis has led to its use, in frozen food packaging. These include frozen soft fruits, frozen milks, water etc.
3. General food pa ckaging: The interness of low density polyethene has led to its used for packaging of foods like bread, ice cream, biscuits, margarine, storage of sugar etc because it will not react with the food item.
4. Textile packaging: The textile industries make use of low density polyethene bags to package the textile product after production so as to prevent it from being damped.
5. Packaging of pharmaceutical products: The main use of high density polyethene is the strip or blister packaging of pharmaceutical capsules and tablets, especially in cases of hydroscopic products, owing to the high water penetration resistance of polyethenes.
6. High density polyethene are equally used in the packaging of aerospace hardwares and valves.
7. Low density polyethene film is used in the field of heavy duty sacks, its main advantage being that the sacks could be stored in the open air and high resistances to tear propagation and ensures visibility to the contents
1.2 TYPES OF SEALING MACHINE
1. Cellophane sealing machine: The cellophane sealing machines are used for polyethene and other associated materials.
2. Fibre bag sealing machine: This type seals products that are usually contained in fibre salts.
3. Can sealing machine: This is mostly used in the metallurgical industries for sealing metal can etc.
4. Paper sealing machine: Products that are packaged in bags are usually sealed using the vacuum sealing machine type.
1.3 OTHER USES OF CELLOPHANE ARE
a. As a sealant: Cellophane is used in the sealing of plastic contains.
b. In manufacturing of rain coats: Cellophane (polyethane) with high densities are used in the manufacturing of rain coats.
c. They are used as additives to other products.
d. In lamination: Because many current packaging application requires combination of properties not available in any single packaging film, two or more different films, are often laminated to obtain the desired properties. An extremely wide range of properties can be achieved in various combination of cellophane with polyethene aluminum foil, rubber, hydrochloride film, wax and pa per.
e. Printing: A printed design or message may be applied to gravure, flexographic or letter press printing, and several colours may be applied consecutive to cellophane.
g. Hot – melt coating: One important example is its use in the direct wrap, used on some varieties of processed cheese.
In our economy today, there is ever increasing demand for cellophanes and as such, it is very necessary to construct a cellophane sealing machine to meet the needs of the people. The project in guestion is aimed at providing this machine at a relatively cheap cost from locally gathered materials, thus, reducing the cost of production of cellophane sealing machine as well as to enhance the effective utilization of cellophane products.