FRAUD MANAGEMENT AND PERFORMANCE OF FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS IN NIGERIA
(A CASE STUDY OF UNION BANK OF NIGERIA PLC)
1.1 Background to the Study
As in many other industries in the Nigerian economy, most banks are faced with problem of fraud. It might be a gross-over statement to call the Nigerian banking system citadels of frauds. Whilst, very truly, fraudulent practices are rampart in Nigeria the level (amount and number) of fraud is not unexpected of a developing and in experiencing banking system such as ours, it is so far to the credit of the Nigeria monetary authorities, the public at-large and perhaps any other concerned Nigeria that no bank has actually failed in Nigeria as a result of fraud. However, one should be disturbed by the regularity of fraud perpetration in our banks and effort should be made by all and sundry to make this bank to quite a reasonable extent of not totality.
The effect of fraud on our banks are far reacting a high height and they include; huge financial losses of the banks and their customer the depletion of shareholder’s fund and the banks capital base. Others are band management embarrassment and loss of confidence by the customers on our banks. The time, energy and money that would have been used in other development purposes expansion, customers, services and perhaps too, other social responsibilities, to the society-are diverted towards setting up fraud control and prevention system. These automatically increase running cost and most painfully, a major set back at the promotion of banking habit among out people.
Although, the monetary authority and all other concerned have been credited for the simple fact that no bank failed in this country as a result of fraud, it is worth nothing that record has it all, fraud had led to the closure of some banks in other parts of the world and this may take a position of the current trend is not solid. The job matter bank of affairs in great Britain and also the collapse of some banks in Kenya are very good examples, since the rate of occurrence has reached an alarming height and thereby causing a strong and urgent concern there is the need to put a final stop.
1.2 Statement of Problem
Considering the effects of fraud and fraudulent acts as pointed out in the introduction, the purpose of this study is to effectively comb and curb the incidence of frauds in our banks using selected banks in Edo State. Among such banks include; Zenith Bank Nigeria Plc, Auchi and GT Bank Plc.
To achieve the objective of this research, the some problems need to be addressed, this include, why bank personnel commit fraud, how effective are fraud control measures in the banking system and the possibilities of setting sufficient information to predict fraud occurrence in banks.
1.3 Research Questions
The following research questions are relevant for understanding of the study.
1. What is the magnitude of frauds in Nigeria banks?
2. Why and how do banks personnel commit fraud?
3. How effective are fraud control measures in our banks?
4. What is the possibility of setting efficient information to predict fraud occurrence in banks.
1.4 Objective of the Study
The main objectives of the study are:
1. To ascertain the magnitude of frauds in Nigeria banks.
2. To know why and how bank personnel commit fraud.
3. To ascertain how effective are fraud control measures in our banking system.
4. To ascertain the possibility of setting efficient information to predict fraud occurrence in banks.
1.5 Research Hypotheses
HO: Efficient information increases the chance of eradicating bank fraud in Nigeria banks.
HI: Efficient information does not increase the chance of eradicating bank fraud in Nigeria banks.
HO: Bank fraud control is not effective in controlling bank fraud in Nigeria.
HI: Bank fraud control is very effective in controlling bank fraud in Nigeria.
1.5 Significance of the Study
Fraud is a hydra like virus which permeates all areas of banking operation and causing lots of losses to the institution. One can not imagine an organization establishment to contribute in its little or large from to societal development, provide adequate returns to the investors.
From all experience, frauds are unique in terms of the system of planning and execution. Knowledge of the various ways which these frauds have been perpetrated in the past and a foresight or an anticipation of the possible system in the future, considering the past, can be efficient and effective in guiding management prevention and re-occurrence of frauds, for instance, a customer’s cheque paid out previously by a cashier to the bearer, debited to the customer’s account and filed out may be taken and made to pass through the system again i.e. paying a single cheque twice or more and at different days.
Secondly, a fraud occasioned by forged mandate the very common one, where the fraudulent person lay had in the cheque book or leave and draw it to any extent and perfectly forged the customer’s signature such that no one can actually say it was not signed or drawn by the legal owner. In either case the bank is to make good such effected customer’s account. In from the above one seems to agree that majority of the frauds are born by the bank and the banks should pursue effective informal control measure to prevent and manage frauds.
This research work therefore is designed to help managers in the financial institution to get acquainted with the view of gaining sufficiently that would enhance their individual and collective experience in management and prevention of frauds.
1.6 Scope of the Study
Many definitions of fraud has come up but we shall for the purpose of this research re-state and examine some. Fraud is defined as the act of depriving a person distantly, of something to which he is or would or might but for the perpetration of fraud, be entitled. This study critically examines the fraud management and performance of financial institutions institution in Nigeria which examine the theft and fraudulent of people’s finances into some back-pocket. The study is examined in financial institutions all over the nation but more emphasis on Zenith Bank Plc in Auchi and a time frame of 5 (2008 – 2013)years was used the recent correlation of data using a sample size of 20 was used for effective study..
1.7 Limitations of the Study
As a matter of fact, fraud in banks is a very sensitive one. It is sensitive because it occurs in banks and other bankers hardly agreed on the incidence of fraud in their bank. This is due to the fact that it may scare their customers and competition could capitalize on that. However, personal observation and experience as a long term practice banker has also been put to play in the research work especially that these observation and experience were not originally documented. Other limitations include traveling time and cost associated with traveling. As student, finance is so limited to enable one do a job that demand consideration coverage place especially where one has to travel over and over again for sourcing data (financial institution through human errors and staffs).
Time would have very well sufficient for this task but work is done along side with other equally important job as progress test and examination, lecture period all which reduce the time consideration. The most striking limitation is the non-availability of necessary book on this problem in the school library.
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
1. Fraud management- This involves the use of various management techniques to control and prevent fraud.
2. Financial fraud- This involves the financial account transaction such as bank account including a consumer lone or credit card account.
3. Fraud prevention- This involves taking steps that best protect against identity theft and other external treats targeting company .
4. Fraud ring - A group of individuals who scheme together to execute fraudulently activities.