A pandemic is a disease outbreak that spreads across countries or continents. It affects more people and takes more lives than an epidemic, which according to the World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 to be a pandemic when it became clear that the illness was severe and that it was spreading quickly over a wide area.
The shocking and sudden outbreak of the Coronavirus pandemic (Covid-19) in late 2019 and early 2020 left countries of the world in a confused state. Nigeria joined most countries of the world to witness a health pandemic in 2020, . Economic pandemic are normal Nigeria situation but health pandemic was definitely not part of her experience. However, the Covid-19 was declared by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 30th January 2020 as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). On 27th February 2020, the Federal Ministry of Health announced the confirmation of the first case of Coronavirus disease in Lagos State, Nigeria. In the same communication, the Minister of Health announced that the Multi-sectoral Coronavirus Preparedness Group led by the Nigeria Center for Disease Control (NCDC) has immediately activated its National Emergency operations Center.
The Coronviridae family is subdivided into Torovirinae and Coronavirinae subfamilies. Coronavirinae is further sub classified into alpha, beta, gamma, and delta. Phylogenetic clustering accounts from the classification of these subtypes of viruses. It can be isolated from different animal species. In 1960 first case of coronavirus was notified and Canadian study in 2001 was identified approximately 500 patients as Flu-like system in which 17 to 18 cases were confirmed as infected with Coronavirus by polymerase chain reaction. These include livestock, birds, and mammals such as bats, camels, masked palm civets, dogs, mice, and cats.
To reduce the spread of the novel COVID-19, governments enacted mitigation strategies based on social distancing, national quarantines, and shutdown of non-essential businesses. The halt to the economy represented a large shock to the corporate sector, which had to scramble for cash to cover operating costs as a result of the revenue shortfall. The financial sector, and banks in particular, are expected to play a key role absorbing the shock, by supplying much needed funding (Acharya & Steffen, 2020; Borio, 2020). Under these unprecedented circumstances, central banks and governments enacted a wide range of policy interventions. While some measures were aimed to reduce the sharp tightening of financial conditions in the short term, others sought to support the flow of credit to firms, either by direct intervention of credit markets (e.g., government sponsored credit lines and liability guarantees), or by relaxing banks’ constraints on the use of capital buffers. While credit institutions are being called to play an important countercyclical role to support the real sector, these actions also have a series of implications for the future resilience of the banking sector. For instance, as lenders exhaust their existing buffers, they might also experience deterioration of asset quality, threatening the systems’ stability. As the crisis is expected to continue, even after the lockdowns are lifted and economies start to reopen, the net effect of these policy measures on the banking sector is irrecoverable. .
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The covid-19 pandemic has brought the world into exceptionally difficult and largely uncharted waters. Banks are feeling the strains alongside their clients, their employees and the societies they serve. Even so, it is an important responsibility to sustain essential Banking services, while protecting the health and well-being of your staff. Digital capabilities and an effective allocation of resources will be key to meeting shifting demands. Challenges ranging from low patronage, poor liquidity and returns, staff reductions and loss of customers were the scenarios banking sectors witnessed. However in the lime light of this prevalent effect of covid-19, it is the responsibility of bank directors and stakeholders to ensure proper strategies are put in place to remedy the situation.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The objective of this study is geared in three exclusively fold:
To examine the impact effect of Covid-19 on banking sector in Nigeria
To examine the impact of the measures implemented by monetary supervisory authorities during the pandemic
To determine the level of compliance among staffs and clients of banking sector during the pandemic
To examine the challenges banking sector are likely to encounter even after Covid-19
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The research will examine the effect of Covid-19 on banking sector. What it is compelled to do to during this sensitive situation. It would take bank directors and stakeholders to the drawing board in order to come up with feasible strategies to ensure things do not go from bad to worse. It will enlighten government and key policy makers on process and policies to put in place to redeem the banking sector from these drastic effects.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTION
Does Covid-19 have any effect on banking system?
What are the monetary policies and measures enacted by Government on banking sector during covid-19?
To what extent did banking staffs client customers complied to covid-19 safety measures and monetary policies?
What are the challenges banking sector are likely to face even after covid-19?
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
The following hypotheses will be tested in this study:
H0: There is no significant effect of Covid-19 on banking sector
H1: there is a significant effect of Covid-19 on banking sector
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
For the purpose of the study, this study will examine the effect of covid-19 upon banking system in Nigeria using Access Bank Nigeria Plc, Lagos as a case study.
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
During the course of the study challenges encountered were exclusively but not delimited to the following numerous. These are
Inadequate finance: the research was face with problem of inadequate fund which hinder the researcher from shuttering to Access Banks within Lagos more so in printing and collation of questionnaires
Time: time factor pose another constraint since having to cope in this research which went simultaneously within the time schedule of other academic work making it impossible to undertake this study in large more representative skill.
1.9 OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS
Effect: According to Collins dictionary, an effect is a change, reaction, or impression that is caused by something or is the result of something
COVID-19: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is defined as illness caused by a novel coronavirus called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2; formerly called 2019-nCoV), which was first identified amid an outbreak of respiratory illness cases in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China.
Banking Sector: The banking sector is an industry and a section of the economy devoted to the holding of financial assets for others and investing those financial assets as a leveraged way to create more wealth.