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AN APPRAISAL OF GLOBAL HEALTH INITIATIVE IN RESPONSE TO PREVENTION TO PANDEMIC DISEASE IN NORTH WEST NIGERIA

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AN APPRAISAL OF GLOBAL HEALTH INITIATIVE IN RESPONSE TO PREVENTION TO PANDEMIC DISEASE IN NORTH WEST NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  1. Background of the study

The Global Health Initiative (GHI) aims to enhance the effectiveness and influence of all U.S. foreign health programmes by fostering more collaboration and coordination across various agencies, countries, and international organisations. It arrives at a really advantageous moment. GHI is well-placed to capitalise on the objectives of the Government of Nigeria (GON) and the Nigerian private sector, the achievements of United States (U.S.) health aid initiatives so far, and the strong cooperation that the U.S. maintains with other development partners (DPs) and donors (Zhong, 2020). The introduction of the GHI aligns with the creation of the GON's National Strategic Health Development Plan (NSHDP) for the period of 2010 to 2015. The NSHDP encompasses revised strategic goals, initiatives, and desired outcomes for maternal, neonatal, and child health (MNCH), which encompass routine immunisation and campaigns, reproductive health (RH), family planning (FP), nutrition, malaria, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), tuberculosis (TB), other infectious/communicable diseases, and the enhancement of health systems (HSS) (Ilesanmi and Afolabi, 2020). The NSHDP serves as a structure to ensure that various current policies, plans, programmes, and partnerships of the GON are coordinated and harmonised. While the Government of Nigeria (GON) has made some noticeable improvements in enhancing the availability of essential healthcare services, the National Strategic Health Development Plan (NSHDP) expresses apprehension on the comparatively sluggish pace in achieving Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4, 5, and 6 by 2015 (Wang, Zhou, and Liu, 2020).

According to Mustapha Adedokun and Abdullahi (2020), around 40% of pandemic diseases among people of a country may be attributed to occupational exposure on a global scale. According to reports from Euro News and Ripples, the anticipated worldwide infection rate for the pandemic sickness is 6%, while in Nigeria it is expected to be 3% [Ilesanmi and Afolabi, 2020]. The increase in these instances may be attributed to the fact that a significant proportion of pandemic illness patients are asymptomatic. According to Li, Xv, and Yang (2020), the prevalence of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) among healthcare workers (HCWs) in South Korea was 13.44%. The examination of past data on the spread of MERS, using epidemiological information, shows that the rate of death among healthcare workers (HCWs) is 5.78% [Kim, 2017]. The unique characteristics of the new coronavirus, such as its originality, high infectiousness, and fatality rate, set it apart from previous infectious diseases that have affected humanity. To mitigate the spread of a pandemic illness, precautionary measures like hand cleanliness, social distance, and the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) were implemented [Li, Xv and Yang, 2020].

The Nigerian Centre for illness Control (NCDC) has developed safety protocols in accordance with the pandemic illness standards provided by the World Health Organisation (WHO) [Li, Xv and Yang, 2020]. Current data indicates that pandemic diseases are viral infections that mostly spread by droplets and direct contact, rather than through airborne transmission [Li, Xv and Yang, 2020]. This elucidates the rationale for the implementation of measures such as social and physical distance, environmental cleanliness, and infection prevention and control (IPC) activities. Healthcare workers (HCWs) and healthcare facilities are in urgent need of infection prevention and control (IPC) equipment, such as face masks, protective gloves, gowns, face shields, and respirators. This requirement is in addition to the recommendations already provided by health authorities [Ilesanmi and Afolabi, 2020: Li, Xv and Yang, 2020].

In addition, the United States Government (USG) collaborates with Nigerian entities, as well as other national and international development partners (DPs) and donors, to enhance the health of the most susceptible sectors of the population. The United States Government's objective for Global Health Initiative (GHI) in Nigeria is to leverage pre-existing partnerships in order to establish an improved healthcare delivery system that effectively caters to the requirements of the country's people. GHI leverages established partnerships with the Government of Nepal (GON) at various levels, encompassing the private sector, including non-governmental organisations (NGOs), civil society organisations (CSOs), and commercial entities, as well as development partners (DPs), such as other donors, international organisations, and U.S. and technical organisations. Enhancing country ownership, facilitated by the Government of the Nation (GON) and the private sector, with assistance from GHI in terms of technical support, policy discussions, financial aid, and other assistance from development partners and donors, will lead to an improvement in the health conditions of young girls during pregnancy, women of reproductive age, newborns, children under five, as well as families and young men who are either experiencing or at a high risk of malaria, HIV/AIDS, and TB. Therefore, the researcher sought to look into the appraisal of global health initiative in response to prevention to pandemic disease in North West Nigeria.

    1. Statement of the problem

Tackling global health efforts and averting pandemic illnesses in Nigeria, as well as in other places, presents a multitude of obstacles. Nigeria has obstacles pertaining to its healthcare infrastructure, including restricted availability of medical facilities, improperly equipped healthcare centres, and a scarcity of healthcare personnel (Ilesanmi and Afolabi, 2020). This impedes the capacity to properly address health emergencies. Additionally, there might be a dearth of information and comprehension among the general populace about the significance of preventative measures and immunisations. Public health education has a vital role in modifying behaviours and advocating for measures that might effectively hinder the transmission of illnesses (Ilesanmi and Afolabi, 2020).

Nigeria, like several other nations, may encounter obstacles associated with vaccination reluctance. Dissemination of false information, lack of confidence, and adherence to cultural beliefs may all lead to hesitancy in embracing vaccinations, a critical measure in curbing the transmission of pandemic illnesses. Hence, the need to look into appraisal of global health initiative in response to prevention to pandemic disease in North West Nigeria.

1.3 Objective of the study

The broad objective of the study is an appraisal of global health initiative in response to prevention to pandemic disease in North West Nigeria. The specific objectives is as follows

  1. Identify the various global health initiative towards the prevention of pandemic disease in North West Nigeria

  2. Assess the level of acceptance of the global health initiative in North West Nigeria.

  3. Examine the challenges in the implimentation of global health initiative in response to prevention to pandemic disease in North West Nigeria.

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions have been prepared to guide the study

  1. What are the various global health initiative towards the prevention of pandemic disease in North West Nigeria?

  2. What is the level of acceptance of the global health initiative in North West Nigeria?

  3. What are the challenges in the implimentation of global health initiative in response to prevention to pandemic disease in North West Nigeria?

1.5 Significance of the study

A Global Health Initiative (GHI) in Nigeria, or any country, plays a crucial role in responding to and preventing pandemic diseases. Hence, the study is significant in the following ways:

Disease Surveillance and Early Detection:

GHIs often involve strengthening healthcare systems for better disease surveillance and early detection. This enables authorities to identify potential outbreaks quickly and implement timely interventions to prevent the spread of infectious diseases.

Vaccination Programs:

GHIs often support vaccination programs, ensuring that communities are protected from preventable diseases. Vaccination not only helps in preventing the spread of diseases within a country but also contributes to global efforts to achieve herd immunity.

Emergency Response and Preparedness:

GHIs contribute to the development of emergency response plans and preparedness strategies. This includes stockpiling medical supplies, establishing emergency response teams, and conducting simulation exercises to ensure a swift and effective response in case of a pandemic.

Academia

The findings of the study will be significant to the academic community as it will contribute to the existing literature.

1.6 Scope of the study

The study focuses on appraisal of global health initiative in response to prevention to pandemic disease in North West Nigeria. Hence, the study will identify the various global health initiative towards the prevention of pandemic disease in North West Nigeria, assess the level of acceptance of the global health initiative in North West Nigeria and examine the challenges in the implimentation of global health initiative in response to prevention to pandemic disease in North West Nigeria. The study is delmited to North West Nigeria.

1.7 Limitation of the study

Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, and interview), which is why the researcher resorted to a moderate choice of sample size. More so, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.

1.8 Definition of terms


This material content is developed to serve as a GUIDE for students to conduct academic research



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  • Reference(s):

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  • Methodology: Yes available


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