(NIGERIA AS A CASE STUDY)
Machiavelli has gained the world popularity because
of the way he conceived and understood politics. Today “Machiavellism” is used
to describe a political situation characterized by tyranny, despotism, deception
and violence. This is because of Machiavelli’s approach and guidelines towardsachieving stability in the state. Machiavelli crafts a perspective
that aligns politics with warfare, and justifies the deployment of force, the
exercise of cruelties, the practice of deceit and the manipulation of appearances
in the service of government. He was
greatly influenced by the political disarray in Florence of his time. Moreover Machiavelli
presented virtue as vice and vice versa. For him the politician or ruler should
not be a moral agent. He should be less concerned with the morality of actions
in as much as he maintains power.
The Machiavellian principle in its nature considers
the end of actions and not the means used. This poses a state of the survival
of the fittest. This situation to a great extent negates the principle of
democracy and scuttles its growth. Democracy as we know is praised for its
space for freedom, equality, justice and fairness. For any democratic
institution to flourish all traces of Machiavellism should be eschewed. This is
my major concern in this work. I shall verify how the Machiavellian principle
is in play in the Nigeria’s
politics. Has it helped matters or does it bring anarchy? This is the question
we shall attempt in this discourse.
1.2 Purpose of
aim of this work is to critically analyze the principles of Machiavelli. This
will take the form of stating and describing the whole content of his
principles as well as pointing out its implications. Also I shall ‘x-ray’ the
principle of democracy tracing its origin and the conditions for its practice.
This verification will be done within the Nigerian situation. However, the sole
issue here is to relate the principle of Machiavelli to the situation of
democracy in Nigeria.
We shall discuss and inquire on what relevance Machiavellism is to democracy in
and the various forms through which Machiavellism has penetrated the ambience
of politics in Nigeria
and other dimensions of life dating back from our independence days to the
addition, to reject the existence of this Machiavellian principle is being
unrealistic and insincere to the whole assignment. This principle due to its
tyrannical and immoral nature has attracted the criticisms of many political
thinkers and philosophers. Some spoke against its immoral nature. Marx and
Engel in criticizing Machiavellism maintained “the true exponents of
Machiavellian policy are those who attempt to paralyze democratic energies at
periods of revolutionary charge”.
The dangers of this principle compose a threat to the moral foundation of
political life in general and Nigeria
in particular. It has influenced Nigeria and her leaders and
restructured the leadership system. Machiavelli in his advice to the prince
opined that the ruler is the one who is only interested in his maintenance of
power and achieving whatever he wishes regardless of the means employed, thus
the end justifies the means.
Statement Of The Problem
in his nature is a political, social and religious being. These three aspects
of man plays a very important function in making man what he ought to be. These
aspects are complementary in the sense that none supersedes the other in the
various endeavours of man. Religion acts as a shield to human conduct and as
such promotes morality. This morality is further expressed in the form of
virtues. Virtue guides our actions including our socio-political life. Morality
has been a thing of concern for many political thinkers and philosophers. Some
understand morality as a sine qua non
for life. Ekwutosi Cosmas, in his definition of morality states that it is “the
rightness and wrongness of the human action”.
problem of morality constitutes a major part in Machiavelli’s political
philosophy. From the ancient times, philosophers had always associated politics
with morality. They identified politics in moral tenets. The case of
Machiavelli was that of a radical contrast. To this Joseph Omoregbe states, “he
writes to remove morality if they want to be successful politicians or rulers”.
There is no space and consideration for morality. Machiavelli from the start
disposed his readers that “straightforward efforts to master and apply the
tenets of traditional rules will not produce an effective ruler. Politics must
have its own rules”. A look
on the views of other philosophers will show the place they assign to morality
in political life. For Socrates human actions are associated with morality.
Thus, he opines, “to know the good is to do the good. Knowledge is virtue”.
He equated knowledge with virtue and maintained that to have the knowledge of a
virtue is to have virtue. Plato in his moral philosophy states, “Virtue means
knowledge, a true knowledge of the true consequences of all acts”.
Plato follows Socrates in maintaining that the goal of human life is happiness
and that the only road that leads to it is through a virtuous life.
addition, Aristotle’s theory of morality centers on his belief that people, as
everything else in nature has a distinctive ‘end’ to achieve. He begins his
Nicomachean Ethics by saying that “every art and every inquiry and similarly
every action and pursuit, is thought to aim at some good. If this is so the
question for ethics is, what is the good at which human behaviour aims?”
Happiness is the end that is sought for its own sake. For St. Augustine once morality is taken away
from government it ceases to exist. Justice is essential to any government.
Hence he states, “Without concord there is no city; but without justice there
is no concord. Consequently justice is the first condition required for the
existence of the city”. The basic problem in Machiavellian principle
is the rejection of morality. There was no place for justice, peace and
fairness. Machiavelli’s popular maxim that ‘the end justifies the means’ is an
attack on ethical principles. Where will morality be if we glory in the end
that we make possible through fair and foul means? If we accept this, then on
which ground shall we stand to condemn some immoral acts perpetrated by people?
What shall we say about leaders and politicians who ascend leadership positions
through questionable ways and yet succeed in improving the standard of living
in their countries? There are people who have followed this path, the likes of
Jerry Rawlings of Ghana
who assassinated the past leaders in order to bring sanity into the political
arena of Ghana.
What of Nigeria
whose present condition has been a deplorable one? It does seem that there is
little or no morally approved means of survival for the common man.
method of my research will be highly critical and expository which will aim at
analyzing the principles of Machiavelli and the principle of democracy. I will
juxtapose Machiavellian principles with the practice of democracy in Nigeria. I will
limit my research on democracy in Nigeria running through the three
republics it has witnessed. Also a cursory look at democracy and the factors
that hinder its workability in Nigeria
will be taken.
a review of the theories of some other political thinkers will be made. We
shall examine all the periods.
the ancient period, Plato’s theory of the state is an idealist theory. For him
the state should reflect the ideally ordered polity which exists in the mind or
in the world of ideas. The ideal state must be a just state. The state
originates because the individual is not self-sufficient and has many needs. In
order to satisfy these needs the state is formed.
Aristotle, “the state is the highest form of association, most sovereign,
embracing all others and therefore aims at the most sovereign of all good. It
is political ‘he koinonia politike’ -
the communion of life in the form of state”.
The state is the summit of all human associations and activities providing for
all man’s needs. Therefore, the states exists by nature since man being a
political animal can best secure the good of life and fulfil his needs together
with other men in the state. The virtue of justice is a feature of a state;
because justice is the arrangement of the political association. Distributive
justice promotes political obligation, unity between citizens and the state.
it “involves treating equals equally”.
Aristotle in discussing the components of the state defends slavery. The ideal
form of government for him is Aristocracy. For Cicero, “the state belongs to the people, a
people being association of a good number of persons based on justice and
partnership to secure common good”.
He advocates that the natural law of reason is the basis of all other laws and
that its source is Divine Wisdom and Reason, which directs the entire universe.
All other rules draw their power and inspiration from the authority of God who
directs all things. He sees justice as a necessity for order in the state.
medieval period witnessed many political theorists who propounded their
theories on what constitutes the state and how the state is to be administered.
Augustine in his doctrine of the two cities presents the ‘city of God’-the heavenly kingdom
against the earthly kingdom, which the Roman Empire
represents. For him, “the ‘city of God’
is the true society, a universal commonwealth ordained by God at the creation
It transcends all races, class and other kinds of boundaries. The supreme good
can only be realized if there is justice in the state.
Thomas Aquinas, the civil society exists by nature. It comes from the nature of
man as a social animal. His theory could be analyzed from his treatise on law.
Justice holds an important place in his theory. It means for him, “rendering to
each one his right”.
There are two distinctions of justice, namely particular and general justice.
Thomas More advocated for communism and bought platonic idea of the philosopher
king. The best and ideal state should “aim at happiness or the pleasure of the
entire people and not only that of a few privileged citizens”.
He rejected the use of capital punishment. Religion is important in the state
and those that are not religious should not be given leadership ranks. Thus he
says, “but those who denied God’s existence and providence, the immortality of
the soul and sanctions in the future would be deprived the capacity to hold
public office and accounted as less than men.”
He associated morality with politics.
theorist, Jean Bodin opines “the state is a secondary or derived society, in
the sense that it is a lawful government of several households and of their
common possessions with sovereign power; but it is a different kind of society”.
The natural social unit from which the state arises is the family. Political
order must be observed because it is the supreme need of man. The supreme power
of the state is vested on the absolute sovereign. He has no right to disregard
the divine authority or the natural law. Thus “the sovereign is unrestrained by
law and he cannot limit his sovereignty by law, so long as he remains
sovereign, for law is the creation of the sovereign”.
The sovereign is the supreme creator of the law and has ultimate and full
control over legislation.
was in the renaissance period that Machiavelli flourished. With his works, the
Prince and the Discourses, he became the first political theorist to present
the state as a political structure to be described on its own. In his political
theory, “Machiavelli deviates from the medieval teachings on the end of man by
contending that the end of man is solely earthly and not heavenly”.For
him there is no divine law.
modern period theorists also contributed immensely to the development of
politics. Thomas Hobbes holds that man originally existed in “a condition of
natural warfare-a state of homo homini
lupus, a condition in which man is a wolf to man”.
In the state of nature there is no morality, no law, no right or wrong. People
then enter into bond or contract to establish peace and overcome the condition
of the survival of the fittest. The social contract or commonwealth is the
state where the people give up their right of self-government and establish a
‘unity’. John Locke holds the same view. The state of nature is the state of
perfect freedom and equality. Men enter into social contract in order to form a
political society to avoid the inconveniences that characterize the state of
nature. Here through labor one acquires private property. Thus “he hath mixed
his labor with (nature) and joined to it something that is his own”.
 Q. Skinner, Machiavelli,
(Oxford: Oxford University press, 1981),
 C. Ekwutosi, Unpublished Work
on Ethics, (B.M.S Awka, 2002), p.3
 A. Grafton, Introduction to
the Prince in N. Machiavelli, (New
York: Trans. By G. Bull, Penguin Books, 1961), p. xxii
 S. Stumpf, Philosophy History
and Problem, (New York: McGraw Hill Inc., 5th Edition, 1994), p. 41
 Ibid. p. 70
 Ibid. p.103
 St. Augustine,
The City of God, (New York: Image
Books, 1958), p.10
 Polis in Plato’s theory means the political society or the state.
 M. Nwoko, Basic World
Political Theories, (Ibadan: Claverium Press, 1988), p.24
 Ibid. p. 25
 Ibid. p.31
 Ibid. p.37
 Ibid. p.53
 Ibid. p.55
 F. Copleston, A
History of Philosophy, (London: Continuum , 2003), p.321
 Ibid. p.325
 Ibid. p.326
 M. Nwoko, Op. Cit. p.56
 Michael Oakeshott(ed), Leviathan,
by T. Hobbes (New York:
Collier, Macmillian, I962),
 C. B. Macpherson (ed), Second
Treatise of Government by J. Locke, 1980,