management strategies and performance in Abi Local government area of Cross
1.0 Background of the
the right strategies Abi local government area of Cross River State will apply
to manage intra and interstate conflict is very essential to its administrative
responsibilities, because this is one sector any administration in the area
will want to put more interest by deploying all available resources, in other
to improve his performance towards socio-economic development. Applying the
right strategies in conflict management is important because of the numerous
challenges it brings to the growth and development of any society or
organization (Olakunle, 2008).
to Olakunle, (2008), with
a basic understanding of the conflict management strategies, small
organizations and societies can better deal with conflicts before they escalate
beyond repair. Estes & Wang, (2008) further identified the following; accommodating, avoidance, Collaborating, compromising, and
competing methods as the best strategies in managing conflicts in any
organization or society. Management of
conflict is very essential for development to prevail in an organization, but considerations on the high costs of managing conflict and the consequences it may
bring to any organization or society cannot be pre-determine, hence the need
for adopting the above mentioned
strategies becomes very imperative (Bartlett, 2010).
to Cross River State report on conflict resolution in 2010, different categories
of conflicts have been recorded in several communities of Abi local government
area with their neighboring communities both within the state and neighboring Ebonyi
and Abia state respectively. Some of these
conflicts include; the conflict between Igbo Imabana and Assiga community in Neighboring
Yakurr L.G.A, the conflict between Anong and Ekori community in neighboring
Yakurr local government Area, and other interstate cases of conflicts too
numerous to mention. Other
cases of conflicts that have been identified as interstate conflicts in Abi local
government area of Cross River State which seem to be the most recent conflict is
the conflict between Adadama community and Amagu communities in Ikwo local
government area of Ebonyi. Eyewitnesses
said the crisis arose from a renewed land dispute between Adadama and Amagu
study on conflict management strategies and performance in Abi Local government
area of Cross River state, indicates that how conflict is managed in the
society impacts the process and outcomes
of conflict, both for individuals and for organizations. Poorly managed
organizational conflicts affects the level and frequency of future conflicts
and has a negative effect on learning, productivity, and job performance
Statement of the Problem
the right strategies is a challenge towards effective Conflict management in most
societies and this trend has an adverse
effect on the society or organization
not being enable to achieve its
set objectives in terms of socio-economic development, due to poor management
of conflict thereby resulting to prolong stay of conflicts and also generating
of more conflict . So many societies have broken down for their failure to
adopt effective conflict management strategies, the entire globe is seriously
threaten with different categories of conflicts which have been seen to be
poorly managed due to their failure to adopt effective conflict management
strategies (Paul & Dean, 2002).
Africa in particular is facing very serious times in terms of different
degree of unresolved conflicts for one reason or the other, hence the need for
adoption of effective conflict management strategies becomes a challenge to every
societies or organizations if they must improve in performance.
problem of differences in opinion is however prevalent in every society and
this becomes an impeding factor towards adopting effective conflict management
strategies which results to stagnating developmental activities in most societies .
of the study
main objective of this study is, to analyse the strategies of conflict
management and performance as relates to
Abi local government area of Cross River State. Other specific objectives
To identify the possible
causes of conflict in Abi local Government Area of Cross River state.
To determine the
nature of conflicts in Abi local government Area and its attendant effects on
socio-economic development of the area.
To determine the
possible strategies of managing conflict in Abi local Government Area of Cross River
identify the impact, the various strategies conflict management will have on
performance of Abi Local Government Area.
The following research questions were
asked to guide the study
What are the possible
causes of conflict in Abi local Government Area of Cross River state?
What are the possible
strategies of managing conflict in Abi local Government Area of Cross River
state in other to improve performance.?
What are the nature
of conflicts in Abi local government Area and its attendant effects on
socio-economic development of the area?
What are the impacts of
conflict management strategies on performance in Abi Local Government Area of
Cross River state?
1.4 Research hypothesis
other to achieve the objectives of this study, the following hypothesis were formulated;
1. There is no significant relationship between effective
conflict management strategies and performance of Abi local government area.
is no significant relationship between conflict management strategies and socio-economic
development in Abi local government Area.
is no significant relationship between effective conflict management strategies
and causes of conflict in Abi Local Government Area.
1.5 Scope and Limitation of the Study
The scope of the study focuses on the
impact of conflict management strategies on the performance of Abi local
government Area. This local government area is chosen because of ease in
accessibility and also being local government area with diverse goals. The
limitation of the study is due to insufficient financial resources, time and
materials that have hindered the researcher from travelling to every part of Abi local Government Area in
other to source for vital information from Areas that have experience one form
of conflict or the other.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study will be of value to
organizations both public and private in order for them to identify some
salient causes of conflicts and to be able to manage the situation judiciously
using some of the conflict management strategies as mentioned above. The
study will also arouse both states and federal government interest to see the
need in providing adequate resources to local government areas and also speed
up the process of local government autonomy in order to minimize the rate of conflicts
in this third tier of government that is directly responsive to the grass root.
The study will also provide a platform for management of organizations to
direct resources appropriately in order to minimize conflicts situations in the
workplace. The study is also expected to be of great value to academicians
and practitioners in the field of conflict management, public relations
and public administration. The study can also be useful to researchers for
Historical Background Of The Study Area: Abi Local Government Area
local government area was first created in 1983 during the shagari’s
administration and was later abolished due to the overthrow of that
administration a in a coup de tat in December 1983.The present Abi local
government area was recreated out of the defunct Ugep local government area in
1991 by the General Ibrahim Babangida
People from Abi include Come from mainly Ethnicities such as the Agbo subgroup of Igboland
and the Bahumono (thisdayonline ,2004).
One of the largest tribes within Abi
Local Government is Bahumono, which includes seven villages namely : Ediba, Anong, Usumutong, Afafanyi,
Igonigoni, Ebom, and Ebiriba. There are linguistic differences among the
Bahumono people with the major variant being the Ohumono language. They are all
historically known to have migrated from a place within the hills of Ruhura
(ekpon a ruhura) called Hotumusa (old town) which lies in a region between the
present day Ediba and Usumutong villages. The Ediba people at Hotumusa had
hunters who found a riverine location where Ediba situates presently. The
hunters related the news to her people and Ogbudene led the people in a siege against the locals of the river dwelling and drove them
across the river. Four of Five of the Ediba families namely: Henugwehuma,
Henusokwe, Enihom and Henuowom quickly
left and colonised the river area. The Ezono clan made up of Bazorang, Batonene
and Fonahini, the last family, decided to stay back at Hotumusa, where they had
always been the head land owners and leading family among the other five. This
small clan has had its own dynastic legacy, festivals, deities and new yam celebrations to this day.
Lying midway on the Cross River , Abi
local government area stretches between
longitude 8.00 to 8.100 E and latitude 5.000
to 6.300 N. It is bounded on the north and west by Abia and Ebonyi
states respectively and on the east and south by Yakurr and Biase Local Government
Areas. It has an estimated population of about 112,941 people And a land mass
of approximately 334.5316sqkm, the occupation of the people is predominantly
farming activities such as livestock, fishing and cash crops.
Definition of terms
is a high level method put in place to achieve one or more goals under
conditions of uncertainty. (Henry,2010)
Conflict :- is
a struggle or contest between people with opposing needs, ideas, values,
or goals (Algert & Watson, 2006).
Performance:- isthe accomplishment of a given task measured against preset known standards of accuracy in other to satisfy expectations. performance
is deemed to be the fulfillment of an obligation, in a manner that releases the performer from all liabilities (Rivers,2005).
Management:-is the act of dealing with situations
in a successful way. That is, bringing situations like conflict under control. (Ngu, 2008)