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GEOLOGY OF WESTERN AKING AND ITS ENVIRONS AND HEAVY METAL DISTRIBUTION IN SURFACE WATER STREAM SEDIMENT, AKING-WEST,SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA

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GEOLOGY OF WESTERN AKING AND ITS ENVIRONS

AND

HEAVY METAL DISTRIBUTION IN SURFACE WATER                              STREAM SEDIMENT, AKING-WEST,SOUTHEASTERN NIGERIA

DEPARTMENT OF GEOLOGY

ABSTRACT

Aking-West and its environs is located within latitude 050 221N and 050 261N and longitude 0080 361E and 0080 381E. It covers an estimated area of about 72km2. The area is situated in Cross River State which falls within the Basement Complex of South Eastern Nigeria (Oban Massif). Geologically, the study area is made up of basement rocks, some of which are weathered. Form field studies, gneiss, granodiorite and pegmatite are the major rock types in the study area. Texturally, the rocks in this area range from medium to coarse grains due to the presence of low temperature minerals such as quartz and biotite. The formational events in the area led to the formation of joints, foliation and folds. The rock trend in the NE-SW direction indicating the pan-African orogeny. Petrographic analysis revealed the presence of migmatite gneiss, biotite gneiss, granodiorite and pegmatite as the metamorphic and igneous rocks in the study area. Petrogenetically, it is believed that different rocks encountered in the field have different origins which form the nature and place the rocks were derived. The rocks are either igneous, metamorphic or sedimentary rocks. The drainage pattern of streams and rivers of the area is dendritic. The study area is characterized by thick vegetation cover consisting of variety of plants such as tall trees, shrubs, climbers and undergrowths. The economic potentials can be said to be promising due to the abundance of sand and aggregate materials which if exploited would boost the economy of Cross River State.   

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CERTIFICATION

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

LIST OF FIGURES

LIST OF TABLES

LIST OF PLATES

ABSTRACT

CHAPTER ONE

1         INTRODUCTION

1.1        LOCATION AND ACCESSIBILITY

1.2        REVIEW OF LITERATURE

1.3              PRESENT INVESTIGATION

CHAPTER TWO          

2              PHYSICAL SETTING

2.1            CLIMATE VEGETATION

2.2            RELIEF AND DRAINAGE

2.3            WEATHERING AND EROSION

CHAPTER THREE

3 METHODOLOGY OF THE RESEARCH

3.1 AIMS AND OBJECTIVE

3.2 TECHNIQUES

CHAPTER FOUR

4 PETROLOGY OF THE STUDY AREA

4.1 METAMORPHIC PETROLOGY

4.1.1         GNEISS

4.1.2         OCCURRENCE AND FIELD RELATION

4.1.3         PETROGRAPHY OF MIGMATITE GNEISS

4.1.4         PETROGRAPHY OF BIOTITE GNEISS

4.1.5         PETROGENESIS OF METAMORPHIC ROCKS

4.2            IGNEOUS PETROLOGY

4.2.1         OCCURRENCE AND FIELD RELATION

4.2.2                 PETROGRAPHY OF GRANODIORITE

4.2.3                 PETROGRAPHY OF PEGMATITE

4.2.4                 PETROGENESIS OF IGNEOUS ROCKS

CHAPTER FIVE

5    STRUCTURAL AND APPLIED GEOLOGY

5.1   STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY

5.1.1   FOLDS

5.1.2  FOLIATION

5.2     APPLIED GEOLOGY

5.2.1   ENGINEERING GEOLOGY

5.2.2   ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

5.2.3 HYDROGEOLOGY

CHAPTER SIX

6. METAMORPHISM AND GEOLOGIC HISTORY

6.1 METAMORPHISM

6.2 GEOLOGIC HISTORY     

CHAPTER SEVEN

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

REFERENCES

LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE 1: MAP OF CROSS RIVER  SHOWING  THE    STUDY AREA

FIGURE2: GEOLOGIC MAP OF NIGERIA SHOWING CRYSTALLINE  BASEMENT OF NIGERIA

FIGURE 3: CLIMATIC MAP OF NIGERIA SHOWING THE STUDY AREA

FIGURE 4:  ROSE DIAGRAM OF FOLD

FIGURE 5:  ROSE DIAGRAM OF FOLIATION


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