IMPACT OF SLUM ON
VALUE OF RESIDENTIAL PROPERTIES IN NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF CROSS RIVER STATE
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Slums are home to the poorest of urban
populations in Africa. The houses inhabited by slum dwellers are mostly
decrepit, overcrowded, in neighborhoods that are prone to flooding and beset
with poor sanitation and shortage of potable water. Slums are easily formed in
areas experiencing rapid urbanization without commensurate increase in the
provision and maintenance of housing and infrastructure. Slums have been
conceptualized as a group of buildings or an area characterized by
overcrowding, deterioration, insanitary conditions, or absence of basic and
essential facilities like potable water, drainage system, schools, health
facilities, recreational grounds, post office, among others. Slums generate
spontaneously and are in some cases, a direct result of the prevalence of
poverty experienced by the inhabitants of cities (Olotuah, 2006). Slums, which
are regarded as an element of urban decay, also result from congestion in
overcrowded cities where poor immigrants seek to settle for just any available
accommodation irrespective of quality. The overwhelming negatives
notwithstanding, there are some positive aspects to slums. In recent years,
some environmentalists and organizations such as the United Nations Population
Fund suggested that despite the poor living conditions, slums are positive both
environmentally and socially. Because slums are characterized by very high
density of housing, its environmental impact is smaller than that of dispersed
rural communities. Furthermore, the fertility rate of new slum dwellers is
below the replacement rate; this mitigates dangers associated with
overpopulation that results from manpower-intensive subsistence agriculture,
and frees up arable land for the nature, or more efficient industrialized
agriculture. Slum dwellers also appear to have vastly better opportunities for
getting jobs, starting small businesses and climbing out of poverty than rural
inhabitants (Akinyode, 1998). Nigeria is ranked as one of the countries with
high slum prevalence. The proliferation of shanty dwellings, squatter
settlements and slums in most of our cities in Nigeria including the cross
rivers state which is the being focused on in this study. However, it has been
asserted that the presence of slum increase the rate of crime in the area
thereby affecting the value of the residential property (Omole, 2010). The
prevalence of slum in Nigeria has significantly affected the value of
residential properties in the affected areas. This value is determined by the
prices of the residential property or by the value of rent per a period time
that is collected on them. However, the researcher will find out the impact of
slum on the value of residential property in Nigeria.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
process of urbanization which means specific changes in the distribution and
structure of population as well as in a size and character of a settlement,
their network or system, has many sided relationship with slums formation. The
rapid rate of urbanization witnessed in the last century has produced more
slums in the major cities of the world, particularly in developing countries where
thousands of rural people move into the major cities at large proportion.
Presence have slum is believed to have been a major cause of organized crime in
the society. The researcher will investigate the impact of slum on the value of
residential properties in Nigeria.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
following are the objectives of this study:
examine the impact of slum on value of residential property in Cross Rivers
identify the causes of slum formation in cross rivers state.
examine the relationship between slum formation and value of residential
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
is the impact of slum on value of residential property in Cross Rivers State?
are the causes of slum formation in cross rivers state?
is the relationship between slum formation and value of residential properties?
Formation of slum does not have impact of value of residential properties in
Cross Rivers State.
Formation of slum does have impact of value of residential properties in Cross
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
following are the significance of this study:
study will educate stakeholders in housing sector, urban and regional planning
and estate management of the causes and characteristics of slum and its effect
on the rent and price which are the determinant of the value of those
research will also serve as a resource base to other scholars and researchers
interested in carrying out further research in this field subsequently, if
applied, it will go to an extent to provide new explanation to the topic.
OF THE STUDY
on the impact of slum on the value of residential properties in Nigeria will
cover the formation of slum in cross rivers state and its effect on house rent,
land rent, land purchase, security etc.
LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the
efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature
or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire
Time constraint- The researcher will
simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently
will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
refers to specific changes in the
structure and distribution of urban population as well as in size and character
of a settlement
a squalid and overcrowded urban street or district inhabited by very poor
B. F. “An appraisal of community improvement programmes (CIP) in developing
countries: A case study of World Bank Assisted Urban Renewal Project in
Ibadan”, M. Sc. Thesis, University of Ibadan, Nigeria, 1998
A. O., Housing Quality in suburban areas: An empirical study of Oba-Ile,
Nigeria, Dimensi Teknik Arsitektur, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 133 -137, 2006.
F. K., “An Assessment of Housing Condition and Socio-Economic Life Styles of
Slum Dwellers in Akure, Nigeria”, Contemporary Management Research. Vol 6. No
4. Pp 273-290, 2010.