Chemical Engineering | PRESERVATION OF PALM WINE USING ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION

PRESERVATION OF PALM WINE USING ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION

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ABSTRACT

This study was aimed at the preservation of palm wine using ultraviolet radiation. The experiments were done using an ultraviolet sterilizer at time intervals of 2, 4,7,25 and 29hours. The freshly tapped palm wine was first analyzed and result shows that the pH, sugar content, specific gravity titrable acidity, alcohol and total solids recorded values of 6.60, 5.40, 0.984g/m3, 0.66, 4.2(%by/v) and 10.5g/100ml respectively. On the other hand, the result of the sterilized palm wine shows that as time increases, the pH increases from 6.60-6.69. Also sugar content increases from 5.40 -6.82 as time increases from 0-29hours. However, the alcoholic content decreases from 4.20-1.50(%by/v) as time increased. Conclusively, the ultraviolet radiation was effective in stopping the fermentation of the palm wine.         

TABLE OF CONTENT

Title Page                                                              i

Letter of Transmittal                                               ii

Approval page                                                               iii

Dedication                                                             vi

Acknowledgement                                                  v

Abstract                                                                vii

Table of content                                                     viii

CHAPTER ONE

1.0  Introduction                                                    1

1.1      Background of the Study                                         1

1.2      Statement of the problem                                 4

1.3 Aim/Objective of the Study                                6

1.4  Scope and Limitation of the Study                     6

1.5  Method of Research                                         7

1.6  Significance of the Study                                         7

CHAPTER TWO

2.0  Literature Review                       

2.1  History of Palm Wine                                        9

2.2  Physical Properties of Palm Wine                        10

2.3  Chemical Properties of Palm Wine                       11

2.4  Types of Palm Wine                                                12

2.5  Composition of Palm Wine                                14

2.6  Physical Composition of Palm Wine                            15

2.7  Chemical Composition of plant wine                          18

2.8  Biological Composition of Palm Wine                   20

2.9  Production of palm wine                                   24

2.10Uses of Palm Wine                                           27

2.11Historical Development of Preservation                  29

2.12 Method of Preservation of Palm Wine                 32

2.12.1 By Canning Method                                       34

2.12.2 Pressure Canning                                                 34

2.12.3 Pasteurization                                              35

2.12.4 Refrigeration                                                36

2.13Yeast present in palm wine                               37

2.14 The acidity of palm wine stability, temperature

        And wine stability                                           39

2.15 Kinetics of destruction of micro-organism

       Detoriation in palm wine                                   42

2.16 Alcoholic content determination                         43

2.17 Distillation process                                          45

CHAPTER THREE

    Methodology                                                     

3.1  Materials                                                       49

3.1.1 Samples Collection of Palm Wine                      49

3.1.2 Equipment Used                                             49

3.2     Method                                                       51

3.2.1       Analysis of the Raw Palm Wine                    51

3.2.1.1    pH Value                                                  51

3.2.1.2    Sugar Content (Sucrose oBrix)                           51

3.2.1.3    Specific Gravity                                        51

3.2.2       Palm Wine Sterilization Using

               Ultraviolet Radiation                                 52

CHAPTER FOUR

Result and Discussion

4.1 Characterization of Raw Palm Wine                      54

4.2 Discussion                                                        56

4.2.1 Effect of UV Sterilization on the pH of

          Palm Wine                                                   57

4.2.2   Effect of UV Sterilization on the Sugar

           Content of Palm Wine                                         57

4.2.3    Effect of UV Content of Palm Wine Sample         57

CHAPTER FIVE

Conclusion and Recommendation               

5.1         Conclusion                                               59

5.2         Recommendation                                      60

               Reference                                                   61

Appendix I                                               69

              Appendix II                                              73

              Appendix III                                             74

              Appendix IV                                             75                                                 

                           CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Palm wine is an important alcoholic beverages resulting from the spontaneous fermentation of the sap of which has been attributed to years and bacteria (Okafor, 1978).

Palm wine is consumed in parts of Africa, Asia and South America. In Nigeria, the two principal sources of sap for palm wine. Fermentation is the oil palm (Ecaeis guineesis) and the Raphia palms (Raphia SPP). It is highly perishable liquid consisting mainly of water, sugar, vitamin and mainly of aroma and flavor components in every small amount. Palm wine have several nutritional, medical, religious and social uses which have been reported elsewhere (Faparvunis, 1966). Odemiymi1977; (Ikenebomeh and Omayunil 1988; Uzogara et al., 1990, Iheonu, 2000).to have increasingly enhanced the demand for this natural product.

Fermentation begins immediately after collection as a result of natural yeasts in the air and wine within two hours, the alcoholic content reaches approximately 4%.

At this stage, the product is sweet while mildly intoxicating aromatic beverages continued fermentation for up to 24hours and sour white drink. This palm wine can also be distilled into whisky –like drinks with higher alcoholic content (up to 40%) beyond a certain threshold; the wine no longer gains alcohol (Adam, 1995).

Many factor including the species of the tree, the season of the year, time of day at harvest and type of soil impact the alcoholic content of the wine. In-fact, these factors play a key role in the characteristics of the final product as rudimentary storage and production facilities do little to preserve to avoid fermentation of micro-organism which can affect the pH values, sugar content, alcoholic content, refractive index and specific gravity. These can be affected due to micro-organism and bacterial that has contaminated with the product. If it carefully preserved, it will retains all nutritional values and last for a short periods of time, days and weeks.

Preservation can be achieved in the difference ways either by physical or chemical method, preservation method of palm wine has perfected locally, it involves pasteurizing and bottling of the palm wine which increase its shell life to over six months.

This method of palm wine preservation makes it more hygienic and consequently more attractive to the city dwellers (Rangana, 1986).

Physical preservation entails process such as refrigeration, drying, pasteurization,sterilization etc.

Preservation additives reduce the risk of product borne infection, decrease microbial spoilage and preserve fresh attributes and nutritional quality.

Some physical techniques include dehydration, U.V.C radiation, freezing, drying, refrigeration, pasteurization, sterilization etc. (Ran Gana,1986).

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Palm wine is an alcoholic beverages created from the fermented sap of various palm trees. It is collected (or tapped) from tall palm tree or raffia tree which is shorter and thus more accessible. There are reports that some people also collected sap from oil palm tree(Elaisguineenis). However, sap from a palm tree (Raffia tree) is milkier and sweeter. When palm wine is tapped fresh and not fermented, it is considered a fruit juice or drink as it contains no level of alcohol% which makes it highly nutritious and beneficial to the body.

Fermentation of palm wine begins immediately after collection as a result of natural yeasts in the air  and wine.

Within two hours, the alcohol content reaches approximately 4%. At this stage, the product is a sweet while mildly intoxicating aromatic beverage continued fermentation for up to 24hours results in a more alcoholic acidic, sour and bacteria.

Formation of bacteria can be achieved by by preservation of palm wine using different method like physical which includes ultraviolet radiation, freezing and pasteurization, and chemical methods which involves introducing a chemical in the palm wine.

This research work seeks to x-ray the preservation of palm wine using UV radiation.

1.3 AIM/OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

       The aim of the study is to preserve palm wine using      ultraviolet rays.

This aim will be achieved through the following    objectives.

1.  To study the characteristics properties of the raw fresh palm wine.

2.  to study the effects of process parameters like time, pH, specific gravity, alcoholic content,  refractive index on the preservation.

3.  To study the characteristics properties of the palm wine after the preservation.

1.4     SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

The following areas will be covered in the research.

1.  Collection of palm wine

2.  Characteristics of the palm wine

3.  Preservation of the palm wine using ultraviolet rays.

4.  Characterization of the palm wine after preservation.

5.  The use of ultraviolet radiation for palm wine preservation leads to poor penetrability.

6.  There is the possibility of a decrease in the taste and flavor of the palm wine after preservation.

1.5 METHOD OF RESEARCH

The information on this research project was gotten from chemical Engineering journals, chemical Engineering textbooks, internet exploration, and resource consultants in the field of knowledge as well as practical/experimental work.

1.6     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The following are the contributions of this research:

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