Chemical Engineering | CONSTRUCTION OF FLOW NOZZLE

CONSTRUCTION OF FLOW NOZZLE

65 pages | 1-5 chapters | ₦3,000 - price | 228 people found this post useful.

ABSTRACT

The project title “fabrication of flow nozzle” was done by a selected group of ND II Chemical Engineering Students and the practiced objective (aim) of the project was centered on constructing a nozzle that is capable of transporting fluid from one to the other, to determine the charge in velocity of the moving fluid across two given areas of the nozzle and to be able to measure the quantity of fluid that will flow through the nozzle for a given period of time.

However, the construction of the nozzle was done with materials obtainable locally and the science of operation carried out in constructing the nozzle was; cleaning, marking out, cutting off, drilling, folding, centre punching, assembling, welding, filling, testing and painting.

The flow nozzle was constructed based on the following specifications and dimensions;

   


Throat Diameter                                                   60mm

   


The diameter of the duct pipe                              140mm

   


The length of the up stream pipe                         200mm

   


The thickness of the nozzle                                  3.8mm

   


The length of the down stream pipe                     200mm

   


The height of the nozzle                                       820mm

   


The length of the nozzle                                       690mm

   


The size of the pressure valves                                      ½ inch

Furthermore, the selection of materials for the construction of this flow nozzle was based on the factors which includes; ductility, malleability, fabricability, mechanical strength and stability, availability, corrosion resistance and lastly cost factor.

Finally, the constructed flow nozzle and all other expenses cost N8,000.

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

          A nozzle is defined as a device in which the kinetic energy of a fluid is measured in an adiabatic process.  A nozzle can also be referred to as a duct of smoothly, varying cross – sectional area in which a steadily flowing fluids can be made to accelerate by a pressure drop along the required duct.  There are many applications in practice which require a high velocity steam of fluids and the nozzle is the best means of obtaining this.  for example, nozzles are used in steam and gas turbines, in jet engines, in rocket motors, in flow measurement, and in many other applications.  There are various type of nozzles namely; the convergent nozzle, the divergent nozzle, and the sizes of these nozzles affect the fluid flow either in one way or other (i.e increasing or decreasing the flow rates).

1.2     HISTORICALLY

In some years past, the measurement of the amount of fluids which flows through pipes was very difficult, simply because, there was past, it was discovered that most of our industrial process or operations require fluid and the quantity of these fluids needed to be known for effective operations and to minimize issues. This stimulated the scientists to go into a research work, which led to the discovery of these metering devices or instrument.  Lenodo de vin was the first scientist to discover ‘orifiice meter” in the year 1452 – 1519, during his study of hydraulics of water flow in channels and he decided to use the orifice meter in his research.  He also observed that the meter was good for the study of fluid. He also noticed that the introduction of an orifice meter into a pipeline is necessary as this causes a change in the kinetic of the fluid.

          Furthermore, still in the field of hydraulic experiment, a scientist called “VENTURI” after 7000 AD discovered a venturi meter.  Also, before the beginning of the 20th century, a scientist called “HAREHEL DEUTSHER” discovered the flow nozzle in their various studies of hydraulics.

          However, flow meters used for measurement has become a device with the advent of the industrial age because of the need for controlled flow process, accounting methods and more efficiently in operation and also because of the realization that controls flow rate is simple and convenient method to other process variable such as temperature and pressure.

          But in this project write up, more emphases will be placed on the working principles of the flow nozzle, the advantage and disadvantage and finally it uses.

1.3     OBJECTIVE/SCOPE OF THE PROJECT

The objective of this project is centered on constructing a flow nozzle, that is capable of transporting fluid (liquid) from one end to the other at a specified pressure, creating pressure differential in the moving fluid and to be able to measure the quantity of fluid that will flow through the nozzle for a given period of time.

          The dimensions and specifications of the constructed flow nozzle are as follows:

   


Throat Diameter                                                   60mm

   


The diameter of the duct pipe                              140mm

   


The length of the up stream pipe                         200mm

   


The thickness of the nozzle                                  3.8mm

   


The length of the down stream pipe                     200mm

   


The height of the nozzle                                       820mm

   


The length of the nozzle                                       690mm

   


The size of the pressure valves                                      ½ inch

The construction of the flow nozzle was carried out with materials obtained locally and the specifications recommended by the international standard organization (I.S.I) were strictly adhered to, during construction.  The constructed flow nozzle should be inserted to a straight pipeline at least 850mm long to eliminate any eddies or other disturbances and substantially steady flow through the nozzle.

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