Bio-Chemistry | THE EFFECTS OF SENNA TORA LEAVES EXTRACT ON THE BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVELS OF THE DIAB...

THE EFFECTS OF SENNA TORA LEAVES EXTRACT ON THE BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVELS OF THE DIABETIC ALBINO RATS (A FOCUS ON DIABETES MELLITUS)

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CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Diabetes mellitus is a disease in which blood vessels of glucose (sugar) are high because the body does not produce or properly use insulin. There are two major forms of diabetes mellitus. Type 1 diabetes   develops when the pancreas does not produce insulin. Type 2 diabetes occurs when the body cell resist insulin’s effect (Microsoft Encarta, 2009). This condition leads to elevated levels of blood glucose. The normal range of blood glucose level for blood glucose level is between 70-110mg/dl. Insulin is a hormone that helps to maintain normal blood glucose level by making the body’s cell absorbs glucose (sugar) so that it can be as a source of energy. In people with diabetes glucose levels build up in the blood and urine causing excessive urination, thirst, hunger and problems with fats and protein metabolism because the body cannot convert glucose into energy, it begins to  break down stored fats for fuel. This produces increasing amounts of acidic compounds in the blood called ketone bodies which interfere with cellular respiration energy producing process in cells. Alloxan induces diabetes mellitus in rats. Alloxan, a beta cytotoxin, induces diabetes in a wide variety of animal species through damage of insulin secreting cell. In these animals, with characteristic similar to type 1 diabetes in humans. Hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia are common.

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